The Kyot Problem

(under construction)


Attempts to identify Wolfram's mysterious informant Kyot have failed to date because of three key words: Wolfram refers to him as laschantiure (P.416,21), as Provenzal (P.416,25), and as a well-known master (P.453,11). But because a well-known Meistersänger could not be found in Provence, most scholars suspect an empty word play and identify the trouvère Guiot of Provins because of his satire La Bible. In spite of these ambiguities, they disregard the 'Provence' in Southern France and accept a chanteur from 'Provins' near Paris. 

The first story about a grail, entitled Perceval or Contes du Gral (Li Contes del Graal), was created in the 1180s by the French poet Chrétien de Troyes – but the work is unfinished and other poets attempted to complete it.  However, there is a German version, the Parzival (c.1200-20) by Wolfram von Eschenbach, who follows Chrétien's concept very closely and offers major additions and changes. They are worth to be investigated because the French continuators of Chrétien are under suspicion of having been "under orders" to distort his esoteric concept. This is better understood if we consider Wolfram's second opinion. In the context, Kyot stands out because he is mentioned in the only reference to Chrétien by name (P. 827) at the end of his poem:

If Master Chrétien failed to do justice to this story, Kyot could be right to be angry because he handed us down the right version. 

  Most scholars translate laschantiure as le chanteur, even Wilhelm Stapel in his excellent prose version in modern German [1]. But Mustard and Passage [2] point out that the philological evidence favors the meaning l'enchanteur (enchanter), yet the search for a well-known wizard was never attempted. This makes our challenge more interesting because a famous  contemporary of Wolfram has been overlooked, one who matches "Meister Kyot" to the letter, the celebrated scholar, alchemist, and astrologer:



Yes, it's that easy! Or too easy? He most certainly was not from Provence, which could be a major flaw in our theory, but he could have communicated with Wolfram in French Provençal. Until proof to the contrary is found, we have good reasons to continue this investigation although most scholars might dispute emphatically that someone who eluded them for centuries is identified at last.

We will show some of Michael's contributions to 'Parzival' below, although there is no external evidence that they met. However, when the nobles are not feuding they lead an active social life and get together on festive occasions, including marriages and funerals, with their entire entourage. Thus, Wolfram and Michael could have met anywhere! Wolfram's patron Hermann I of Thuringia (c.1155-1217) spent years of his childhood in Paris, at the court of Louis VII and Adèle of Champagne, with a girl ten years older than him, Marie de Champagne, Chrétien's future patroness. Consequently, even Chrétien and Wolfram could have met during their patron's social events! As to Michael (1175 – c.1232), he could have met them when he studied in Paris or at the celebrated "Diet of Nuremberg" in 1211 when Hermann promoted the election of Frederic II of Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily, to come to Germany and assume the crown. As a consequence, the Saxons attacked Thuringia, but the landgrave was saved by Frederic's arrival in Germany in 1212.

According to Thorndike [3], Michael Scot was a "leading intellectual" in the early 13th century. He studied in Toledo (Spain), where Wolfram's "Kyot" allegedly found the astronomical book of Flegetanis, and became chief astrologer at the court of emperor Frederic II. Like Wolfram, he was born around 1170, but had the reputation of a well-known "enchanter" during his lifetime. If Kyot had the right to criticize Chrétien's version, and if he was the astrologer/wizard we identify, a few changes of Wolfram begin to make more sense. Especially the timing of grail events, because Wolfram framed Chrétien's scenario with the planetary positions to date each event. 

      An early depiction of Michael Scot as an enchanter is by Dante (1265-1321) in the Divine Comedy. He condemned him to the "Inferno" (Canto XX), among the Diviners and Sorcerers, right after Erypylus [4]:   

"The other who is slender in the flanks, was Michael Scot, who of a variety of magic frauds did know the game."

       Before we identify Wolfram as the "hare's companion in the field of words", as implied by the poet Gottfried a few decades before Dante, we'll present our case with a comparison of Wolfram's claims and selected quotes from John Ferguson [5], Professor of Chemistry at the University of Glasgow, the Reverent J. Wood Brown [6], and James Hastings. Please note we are the first to compare KYOT with SCOT:

MEISTER KYOT, Wolfram’s Parzival 453,12-455,13. Based on Stapel, Mustard and Passage:  Kyot, the well-known master, found in Toledo, discarded, set down in heathen writing, the first source of this adventure.To be able to read it, he had to first learn the abc's, but without the art of black magic. It helped him that he was baptized, else this story would still be unknown. No heathen art could be of use in revealing the nature of the Grail and how to understand its mysteries. A heathen, Flegetanis, had achieved high renown for his learning. This scholar of nature was descended from Solomon on his mother's side, an ancient Israelite tribe, until baptism became our shield against Hellfire...

MICHAEL SCOT, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Hastings), Ferguson and Wood Brown: In the "Liber Abbaci", Scot is addressed in the highest terms of respect... Supreme Master (WB p.149). At Toledo he learned magic for which the city was famous, natural magic, or experimental physics or jugglery, as well as black magic... (Hast.) Scot had become famous.... In Toledo.. he acquired a knowledge of Arabic and Oriental learning, to say nothing of the  black arts... The rudiments he acquired in Scotland, philosophy at Oxford, mathematics at Paris, and while there graduated as Doctor of  Divinity" (Ferg. p. 78). He even refused "ecclesiastical preferment in Ireland " (WB, p.7). It was at Toledo that Michael Scot wrote his translations... in which he was assisted by a Jew named Andrew..." (Ferg. p.80) This was one Andrew Alphagirus, who seems to have taken the same part that Avendeath had formerly done, by translating the Arabic of Averroes..." (WB, p.117). We should add that Johannes Avendeath was also known as John of Seville, a converted Jew and one of the heads of the school in Toledo (WB, p.46).

KYOTAccording to Wolfram, the Heathen Flegetanis could tell us how all the stars set and rise again and how long every star passes across the sky, before it returns to its house. With the orbits of the stars is also recognized the nature of all people. The heathen Flegetanis saw with his own eyes in the celestial sphere (gestirn = stars, clusters) things he was too shy to talk about, hidden mysteries. He said there was something called the Grail, whose name he had read clearly in the constellations. A host of angels left it on earth, when it flew high above the stars... This is how Flegetanis wrote about these things. Kyot, the wise master, began to search for them in Latin books, to find a people who are true enough to guard the grail. He read the chronicles of Britain and elsewhere, in France and Ireland. He found it at last in 'Anschaue', where he read the whole truth of Mazadan... 

SCOT: His services to astronomy appeared in the Latin version which he made from a treatise on the Sphere'...  by Alpetrongi. The astronomer... flourished about the year 1190... In the preface to... the `Sphere' Alpetrongi begs to be excused if he has ventured to differ from the traditions of the ancients in his theory of the heavenly movements, and especially from Ptolemy the great master of  this Science... (WB, pp.99-100) Even Roger Bacon who blames Michael Scot so bitterly when language or philosophy were in question, speaks in a different way here, calling him a `notable inquirer into matter, motion, and the course of the constellations.'" (WB., p.145).

        Let's pause and think about this for a moment: This happened 800 years ago when there were no cars, trains or planes. Most people walked long distances, some could afford a horse or a mule, and even carriages. The latter were pulled by mules, oxen, or horses, and these were difficult times when blood was spilled at the drop of a hat! For their safety, students would band together on their travels, or join craftsmen, entertainers, and soldiers. Some could attach themselves to nobility as they traveled from castle to castle, from country to country. Nevertheless, Michael Scot traveled more than most of his contemporaries.

        Like Kyot, he was in Britain, France, Ireland, and "elsewhere", in Germany, Sicily and Spain at the time Wolfram worked on Parzival. One of these countries is probably "Anschouwe" where he found the tale of the grail. Some say "Anjou", but the key to the solution is, as we shall see later, that Wolfram mentions a second Kyot, a duke from Catalonia (the Spanish March).

Dante left us an important clue by describing Michael as "slender in the flanks". This led Thorndike to assume that it pertained to his starving student days, but the translator of Dante points out that it had to do with a legend that he could make himself invisible. The Scottish poet James Hogg (1770-1835) has another version: He says in "The Queen's Wake" that Michael once transformed himself magically into a hare, which made him slender in the flanks so that he could escape from attacking dogs into the drainpipe of his house. But instead of fingering a German poet, Hogg blamed the wicked witch of "Falsehope".

        The most likely explanation of what Dante was alluding to is a literary controversy. Most scholars believe that the poet Gottfried of Strasburg, who lists all famous colleagues in Tristan & Isolde, refers to Wolfram as "the hare 's companion in the field of words" (TI, 4738), who is the only celebrated poet he doesn't mention by name. This could be a response to a pun in the prologue of "Parzival", where Wolfram leads from a hesitant man up to the magpie, a black and white bird, to add that this "flying metaphor " is too quick for some, "they can't grasp it, it rushes before them like a startled hare ."

Gottfried uses the hare because he seems to have understood that Michael (Kyot) appears already symbolically in the prologue, in a masterful fusion of Plutarch's Phoenix riddle with Essene ideals from the "Manual of Discipline" [7]. He also knew, like every hunter, that the zigzags of a hare turn into high jumps, into ups and downs, when startled. Mustard & Passage translate "rabbit" instead of "hare", which is also acceptable. This researcher has hunted rabbits in the Pyrenees, and they often jump up during their zigzags and fly above the high grass or bushes and even have the time to look back at their pursuers!

Hence, Gottfried, confirms "laschantiure" by pointing out that "few have a chance to read up in books of magic what this unnamed poet (Wolfram) really meant" (TI, 4685-8). He not only demonstrates that he "grasped" the flying metaphor, but also his initiation. This could also mean that he omitted Wolfram's name for a good reason: That he may have used a nom de plume. If true, this hypothesis would echo like an explosion though the holy halls of our Germanisten. (The exception is Joachim Bumke in Cologne, who encouraged this researcher to write these strange ideas down!) Neverthless, most scholars who read this are already pulling their hair out like young Parzival, if there is any left. That's why Wolfram says in in the prologue that those who don't grasp my "flying metaphor" should try to grab me inside my hand, where I have no hair because they really know how to "grasp"! Although this is also a pun on Wilfried the Hairy and Charles the Bald, we better stay with Kyot. If we discount the ideas of Chrétien de Troyes and the contributions of Michael Scot, less of a Bavarian poet from Eschenbach seems to remain. It could explain that Gottfried may have had another good reason to reduce Wolfram to a hare's companion in the field of words.

If Kyot was Michael Scot, a scholar from the Scottish lowlands and an English speaking collaborator of Wolfram, the use of Balaam's "Key OT" as code for his name could be considered, especially in view of the Arthurian theme. And once English is taken into account, other conjectures comes to mind as well: Wolf-ram von Eschen-bach could mean Wolf (Pluto), guardian of the secret of the Ram (Aries), about 'cedars' beside a stream (Balaam) in the Middle East, or in the North 'ash trees' (German: Eschen) beside a stream (German: Bach). This play with the cedars (of Lebanon, where the phoenix feeds) which are replaced by ashes is a fitting metaphor for the phoenix rising from ashes. We are almost inclined to consider another reversal, that the poor knight from Bavaria was really an invention of Michael Scot. Wolfram laments that Heinrich von Veldeke from the German lowlands "died too young", and after more research a philologist might conclude that he had a second career with Michael under a pseudonym. It could be a fun project once we get deeper into this conjecture!

 Meanwhile, the symbolism of both names is little more than a hypothesis. We only know for sure that pseudonyms were popular during the Middle Ages, Alcuin used the names "Albinus" and "Flaccus", Charlemagne liked "David", and his chronist Einhard was "Beseleel" [8]. Thus, if "Wolfram" wasn't Heinrich, he could have been a poor Pythagorean beggar monk. That's based on his claim that the "service of the shield" is his profession, and that he is so poor, not even the mice have enough to eat! Wood-Brown relates a legend that Michael took the German baron Ulf (Wolf?) on a magical mystery tour of smiling coasts and people in the far west (9). Was it as far as "Munsalvaesche" (Wildenberg) where the Pyrenees meet the Med? If true, Wolfram could have been a knight who gave away his possessions and joined St Francis (1181 – 1226).

Thorndike relates two texts, which could be a link to Wolfram. As far as we know, it is the latest biography (1965), but it confirms many conclusions of Ferguson and Wood Brown.

He refers to Michael as "the leading intellectual in western Europe during the first third of the thirteenth century. Pope Honorius III called him `singularly gifted in science among men of learning. He introduced works of Avicenna and of Averroes to the Christian West. Roger Bacon credited him with the introduction of a new Aristotle...  Before Roger he had distinguished between legitimate mathematics, as derived from 'mathesis', and forbidden divination, connected with 'matesis'... Scot anteceded Raymond Lull, who was perhaps born in the year of Michael's death, in the use of the conception chaos... Extracts from the alchemical writings current under his name were added in the first printed edition (of 1546) of `The Precious New Pearl'" (Th. pp.1-2).

 This book, by the way, may have been the source of Kepler's grain, because he also claims in some letters to have found a pearl in the dung of Arabian superstition. But back to Michael: "The first day of creation was 18 March, where the letter g is written in the books of computus, when the sun entered (or would have entered, had it already been created) the sign of Aries..."  In at least one manuscript his account of creation is preceded by the statement "God created everything in the flash of an eye, all together and at once" (Th. pp.42-3). Hence, Michael was not only the first to suggest the Big Bang Theory, he even knew that our planet is round: "There are inhabitants both above and below the equator, who `hold their feet against ours'" (Th., p.47). He shared the ancient belief that at Creation, all "seven planets" began their course in Aries. Consequently, the astronomical events of 860 and 6 BCE, 849 CE and 1703 were times of "renewal", the beginning of new eras. According to Plato (Timaeus), the perfect number of time fulfils the perfect year (or Great Year) when the sun, moon, and all planets have completed their course and have again reached their starting-point. This could explain the mental fusion of planetary triangles into a hexagram – the magic art of the Biblical astronomers.

Back to Thorndike: After reaffirming his belief in God and Christianity, Scot censures superstitious astronomy but accepts `ymaginaria astronomia' concerning things not plain to the eye but to the intellect, such as mathematical lines and spirits in the air (Th. p.92).  A direct link to Wolfram's "Parzival" is an astrological method of inquiry which Thorndike attributes to Plato, although Michael claims that it goes back to the ancient codices of Solomon.

According to Michael: "An instance of its specific application (M,127b) occurs if, for example, someone comes to consult you in the hour of  Saturn, who is cruel, evil, and very harmful to almost all persons... except about the end of its regime, near the hour of Jupiter". 

According to Wolfram: The suffering of Anfortas is greatest under Saturn. Relief and healing comes with Parzival's half-brother Feirefiz, who is led by Jupiter.

Michael: "If the enquirer comes to you early in the hour, tell him that the object of his inquiry contains blackness and whiteness, or both, and is complete enough in itself, and is not of great value.

Wolfram: Parzival opens with the flying metaphor of the magpie, a European bird which is spottet black and white like Feirefiz. 

Michael: "In or near his hand is something green, or clear like glass or crystal, or something which was in fire or near fire" (Th.,p.107).

Wolfram: The name "Feirefiz" suggests Son (fiz/fils) of Fire (feire/feu/feuer). He marries Repanse de Schoye who carries the grail, a precious stone, on a green cushion, which may be a link to Mont Verdera, the green mountain.          

Thorndike also makes two observations which relate to our project of decoding the grail mystery: An emphasis of etymology and numbers! This has been a leitmotiv for our researches because Chrétien uses the word “Graal” in an etymological play with words, which we identify as the key to its source. In Wolfram's poem, a major emphasis has been his coining of words, and the hidden, mathematical structure of his poem which was discovered by Hans Eggers [9], and which we identify as the key to the phoenix riddle, as presented by Plutarch in 'de defectu oraculorum' (Moralia).

Thorndyke on Michael’s etymology:

"He has a marked command of the Latin language and a wide vocabulary, even coining words (Th.p.7)Michael shows great interest in names, definitions, and etymologies... Michael's etymologies are sometimes from Isidore, sometimes perhaps of his own devising ... This `penchant' for etymology was by no means peculiar to Michael Scot" (Th. pp.16-17).  

Thorndyke on Michael’s numbers:

"Numbers appealed to Michael Scot as strongly as did names. When stating that the rainbow has two names, he adds that the sun has seven. Like music, number seemed to him of prime importance in the constitution and operation of the universe and all its parts... (Th.p.54)  "There are numerous verses dealing with `Computus' and the calendar"(p.57). "Like Roger Bacon later, Scot distinguishes between... mathematics, which may be taught freely and publically, and `matematica', which is forbidden" (p.92). 

We had followed the “Christmas Star” from Kepler to Plutarch and realized that the celestial triangles can be fused into a star or phoenix once we draw lines between the planets. Hence, we seem to have taken Michael Scot’s advice and even used some forbidden mathematica and 'ymaginaria astronomia, of "things not plain to the eye but to the intellect, such as mathematical lines". Because we have  “trapped” the phoenix we should also be ready for Michael's version of the Christmas Star. In view of its importance for our quest, we need someone to translate the original for us! Is there a bored monk somewhere between the Alps and Appalachians who could kindly do this for us, including Chrysostom’s sermon?  You can't all be "under orders" to illuminate the Wikipedias of the world! Until then, the quotes from Thorndike have to suffice:   

"Michael whose account seems based in part upon a spurious sermon attributed to Chrysostom says that the three Magi came respectively from the three continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa. In accordance with a prophecy of Balaam they were wont to meet annually on the day when the birth of Christ was expected.  

This time they stood in adoration for three successive days on Mount Victorialis until a star appeared in the form of a most beautiful boy wearing a crown, who spoke thus to them: Go swiftly to the land of Judah where you will find the king whom you desire to see, born of a virgin, and this star is Christ and Lord of the whole world.

Descending from the mount they took great gifts of gold, incense, and myrrh such as befitted a king to offer to the newborn babe. They then hastened to Bethlehem on dromedaries, which cover as much ground in a single day as a horse can in two months.

Beside the star three suns appeared at equal distance apart then united to signify the Trinity and Octavianus, the Roman Emperor saw in the centre of the solar disk the Virgin and Child" (Th.p.118).

The names and numbers indicate that we are dealing with Hesiod's phoenix riddle and Balaam's oracle. It is also the earliest mention of a triangle in the sky, and of a fusion with the sun like the “Christmas Star” and phoenix, almost eight centuries before the alleged "discovery of modern astronomers” in the Science News and four centuries before Kepler.  

The symbolism suggests that Michael Scot went beyond the Pythagorean and Ptolemaic cosmologies and returned to the heliocentric system of Aristarchos (3rd. cent. BC). This is also  in "Parzival" (P.465) where we are told to follow Plato and the Sibyl, who recommended already in their time to accept old wisdom as new. Michael was obviously familiar with the planetary triangles of 6 BCE and 849 CE. But why would he change the watery triangle into three fiery suns that unite into the solar disk? Followed by the nonsense of the emperor's vision? We had learned from Plutarch to subtract the lies, but this symbolism is more complex. 

One false claim is obvious: Octavianus could not have seen the Virgin and Child in the Solar disk! The emphasis on numbers, as noted by Thorndike, and indicates that Octavianus is a numeric key because Octavian's (8) plus Virgin and Child (2) adds up to 10. This suggests that we should probably consider Michael's penchant for etymology and "ymaginaria astronomia" about things not plain to the eye but to the intellect. The Pythagorean triangle (1+2+3+4=10) conjures up Hesiod's riddle, where a false claim of 10 had been subtracted to "trap" the elusive Phoenix. This could be an invitation to try "numbers magic" once again, because it seems that Michael "Christianized" Hesiod's riddle.

For superstitious audiences in the Middle Ages, Michael had to use a grander scheme to explain it: By opening on Mount Victorialis and ending with Octavianus, he appears to have made a veiled reference to Chrétien's poem and to an event that changed the medieval world: the challenge against pope Alexander III by antipope Victor IV (Octavian), choice of the Romans and Frederick I.  On of the reasons perhaps why Alexander III is accused of being "vicious and evil" in Chrétien's ambiguous prologue!

At the time, Frederick Barbarossa had allegedly recovered the relics of the Magi in Milan and sent Reinhard von Dassel with them to Cologne. And another hidden message: The Nymphs are assigned to trees, like Ishtar, which Michael implies with the vision of Octavianus. If the Pagan emperor saw a virgin in the Solar disk, it could only have been Venus. Venus-Aphrodite, which may be a first reference to the grail castle. These are sophisticated plays with numbers, meanings, and words, the intellectual pursuits of the Middle Ages. A tangled web of symbols and a maze of multi-layered allegories.

We have seen that Michael stresses the importance of etymologies, like his contemporary Robert Grosseteste. This is because the `Etymologies' of Isidore of Seville "became a standard medieval work of reference and its influence is said to have been second only to the Bible" [10]. The "Manuel" of Dhuoda (9th. century) demonstrates that etymological interpretations went far beyond mere plays on words. Centuries later, the poets of grail romance used them to protect the secrets they had discovered which is strong evidence that they were initiates! 

Once we reach the higher levels of our adventure, we might spend some serious time with Wolfram's cosmology. One candidate for Flegetanis is a Greek from Egypt, Claudius Ptolemy. He wrote The Almagest, which is Latin for the Arabic الكتاب المجسطي, al-kitabu-l-mijisti,  ("The Great Book"). It was discovered in Toledo at the time of Chrétien, and translated from Arabic to Latin by Gerard of Cremona (c. 1114 1187). A more complete translation was done under the patronage of Frederick II  when our great Scott was his astrologer! The most comprehensive study to date is probably "Ritter und Kosmos im Parzival" by Wilhelm Deinert and should be read by all who understand German. He says that the dispute between Hagen and Singer, whether Flegetanis was a person or an Arabian cosmology, has been settled in favor of the latter. Hagen, Martin, and Merkell agree that the cosmography is entitled "other sphere", which is not a second or other sphere, but a transcendental sphere. A major subject in Michael Scot's researches as we have seen above. Hartl and Kuhn explain that Flegetanis stands for Felek-thani, Arabian for "sphaera altera", the name of a cosmographic-astronomical book. Although Herbert Kolb is another good source for 'The Kyot Problem', it would be better to start with Deinert. Or with Pujades who had Holywood's book on the sphere in his library.

Meanwhile, we should have the courage of a medieval knight and admit that we have seen things in the stars we are not too shy to talk about. We saw the name of the grail and of those called to it. Led by Master Wolfram, we understand his "flying metaphor" and found in Latin chronicles a family worthy of the grail: The Counts of Barcelona and their founding father Wilfried the Hairy (Guifré el Pilos). But before we get ahead of ourselves we need to double-check something else Wolfram said in his prologue. Especially in view of the fact that the prologue outlines the entire path of our quest, something we can only discover during a step-by-step initiation by his symbolism.

Master Wolfram was no fool and anticipated that we would misinterpret Chrétien's unfinished poem. (Click here for more on Wolfram!) Because of his untimely death, the French master could not fully develop his ideas -- and it made matters worse that some were distorted by his continuators. At this time, it still seems that Guifré el Pilos is the black child in the lap of the Black Madonna of Montserrat. If true, Guifré would have been a reincarnation of Christ, which insults the intelligence of most. Rightfully, which is why Wolfram's reduces Guifré (Wilfried the Hairy), whom we identify as Chrétien's model for Perceval, to the minor character Jofreit fils Idoel who is split into Gawan and Parzival.  

During this literary attempt of "alchemy", Charles the Bald as King Arthur will be reduced as well. They become the dark mirror images as long as we understand fire and water, and how they relate to the sun. Yes, these are the ups and downs of our exciting adventure, which will lead us to even greater surprises! For starters, here is a first attempt at literary alchemy. As long as we remain honest and keep seeking the light, enlightenment, we have a chance to complete the quest.                  


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1. Wolfram von Eschenbach, Parzival, Wilhelm Stapel, Verlag: Albert Langen, Georg Müller, (Munich 1950), p. 240

2. Parzival, Helen M. Mustard and Charles E. Passage, Vintage Books, (New York 1961), p.xxii

3. Lynn Thorndike, Michael Scot, Thomas Nelson and Sons, (London 1965), pp. 1-2

4. John S. Caroll,  Exiles of Eternity, an Exposition of Dante's Inferno, Hodder and Stoughten, (London 1903), see on-line.

5. John Ferguson, Records of the Glasgow Bibliographical Society, 1931, pp. 9:73-74

6. J. Wood Brown, An Enquiry into the Life and Legend of Michael Scot, David Douglas, (Edinburgh 1897), pp. 212-3

7. Edmond Bordeaux Szekely, The Essene Gospel of Peace, International Biogenic Society, 1981, p.1.

8. Harald Zimmermann, Das Mittelalter, 1. Teil, Westermann Verlag, 1975, p.126

9. Hans Eggers, Strukturprobleme mittelalterlicher Epik, dargestellt am Parzival Wolframs von Eschenbach, Euphorion 47 (1953), pp. 264-65. See also Otto Springer, Wolfram's Parzival, Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, A collaborative history, ed. Roger Sherman Loomis, (Oxford, 1959), p. 247. Springer defines the discovery of Eggers as follows: "The first section of exactly 108 units (30 lines each) is the added story of Parzival's parents. This is followed by 3 sections of 108 units (109-432) until book IX, the core of the work, which only has 70 units of 30 lines. Then there are again 3 sections of 108 units (503-827), until the poem ends with 30 lines after unit 827."

10. Frank N. Magill, Great Events from History, Vol.2, Salem Press, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973, p.1086. Also:      


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