The Pujades Affair

Jeroni Pujades (1568 - ca.1650)



This article disputes the claim that Jeroni Pujades, a Barcelona lawyer and historian, died in 1635. The only source is an obituary from Castelló d'Empúries, a town in Northern Catalonia, which dates his funeral on January 7, 1635. On the other hand there are numerous references to the 1640s in his Chronicle of Catalonia – even the claim "I'm alive today on January 6, 1645", which lays the foundation to a major baroque plot!


Other documents allege that while in charge during the French occupation of Catalonia (1644-52), bishop Pierre de Marca had taken the manuscripts of Pujades "by force of arms" from his widow. Furthermore, he had convinced King Louis XIII to have the Franciscan friar and historian Francesc Fornés ordained as Bishop of Urgell. The bishop then rewrote the beginning of the first volume and entire last volume of the Chronicle to pretend Pujades was still alive in the 1640s.


However, there is a scenario that reads like a plot of Alexandre Dumas: Pujades had enemies and Pierre de Marca, a protégé of Richelieu, orchestrated a dramatic "exitus" for him to work in a secret location with the help of Fornés. The evidence suggests that Franciscan friars saved his life by staging a fake funeral with an empty coffin they added to his family crypt at their monastery. Although this plot would turn the above villains into heroes, it is supported by the testament of Pujades which was notarized on Friday, October 20, 1634, ten weeks before his alleged death. It reveals he had joined the Franciscan order of the Third Rule and made some unusual arrangements for his funeral services!


1. Introduction

    For a better understanding of Baroque practices in the 17th century, and before we can investigate the bizarre scenarios outlined above, the chain of events that led to 'The Pujades Affair' needs to be established: When scholars research the "Spanish March" (Catalonia) they usually come across the Marca Hispanica... [1], which was edited by the French scholar Etienne Baluze and published in 1688. Although the core of the work is by Pierre de Marca, a protégé of Richelieu, minister of State, and archbishop of Paris in the year of his death, Baluze had only been his secretary for six years when he inherited his entire library. This enabled him to edit the work and triple its volume by adding many unique documents [2].  Consequently, the editor is now more celebrated than the author, yet it is widely overlooked that most of the additions were discovered by Pujades [3]. We will show below that Baluze created the impression he had collected these documents himself and dismissed Pujades in the index as "ignorant" (Pujadesii inscitia notadur).

          The zeitgeist at the court of Louis XIV and préstige of his employer Jean-Baptiste Colbert allowed Baluze to exploit Pujades, who was unknown in Paris, and few historians would have noticed that the slanderous remark targeted a colleague from Barcelona. Thanks to John H. Elliott (Oxford), who discovered a few diaries of Pujades in the 1950s, the historian is finally getting some attention as an eyewitness of the political struggle that led to the ill-fated revolt of the Catalans against Spain in 1640. That it was a difficult period for Pujades as well is shown by James S. Amelang, a historian in Madrid: "Symbolizing the pressures placed on Catalan writers was the switch made by the jurist and historian Jeroni Pujades in the later volumes of the Chronicle of Catalonia. After publishing the first tome in Catalan in 1609, Pujades – never one to muffle his strident anti-Castilian sentiments – felt compelled to write the rest of his work in Spanish, for the sake of universal understanding" (See article). Amelang follows Elliott, who had pointed out the "anti-Castilian bitterness" of Pujades and even a "warm reference" to the young king of France. [4]

          Baluze's slander and plagiarism was not criticized in Paris even though some historians had a high opinion of Pujades: Esteve de Corbera [5] praises him in Cataluña Illustrada (1678) as the first contemporary who "found a way in these difficult times to give us a chronicle of Catalonia... he accomplished this with great care by searching the archives for ancient documents... dedicating a better part of his life to this laudable occupation without any support, public or private, and even opposed by some out of jealousy..." In the same year, the Franciscan historian Joan Roig i Jalpí [6] praises him even more highly: "The Second Part of the chronicle of Dr. Pujades illuminates everything noble about Catalonia, in general and in particular, and it is worth more, without comparison, than all the treasures of Venice."  In 1821, the Dominican historian Jaime Villanueva [7] noted in Viage literarario a las Iglesias de España...: "There isn't a library in Catalonia, large or small, which doesn't have a copy of the Marca Hispanica... but the Second and Third Part of the Chronicle of Catalonia of Dr. Jeroni Pujades, which has many precious documents, remains unpublished for almost two centuries" and he goes on to say that Baluze "repaid his benefector with an arrogant comment in the index... and exploited documents in this work and others that Pujades had collected during half a century in the archives of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Roussillon, Conflente, etc., by enjoying them as if he had visited these holy places himself." (See link!)

          The accusation reflects also the difficulties of travel in that age, which was time-consuming and a physical challenge. Like Villanueva during his Viage, Pujades had to spend days on horseback to reach isolated locations, even in the high Pyrenees, whereas Baluze could "enjoy" these discoveries at his desk in Paris. This is a first indication that de Marca was not responsible for the plagiarism of his secretary, but the reputation of Baluze remains unchallenged and Pujades is ignored because a few scholars take certain comments in his diaries literally. Instead of relying on the liberal editors of the Chronicle who praised his "genius, subtleness and erudition" (see below), Amelang quotes from the diaries to characterize Pujades as an over-zealous Roman Catholic with a deep hatred of Protestants and heretics, which makes him seem highly prejudicial and calls his reliability as a historian into question.

          It may be one of the reasons why the Chronicle is rarely referenced today although it follows a well-established Renaissance tradition that aimed to "illustrate" the history of a country [8]. A detailed study of his work would reveal that in addition to celebrating the history and legends of his beloved Catalonia, Pujades used a sophisticated rhetoric to attack Church history – which took some courage during the Spanish Inquisition – and he raised the bar for historians as well: he doesn't simply quote and record historical information without questioning the sources and their reliability, as customary at the time, but uses his legal expertise to evaluate many conflicting accounts. 

          Whenever he introduces new documents, which is often, Pujades addresses several sides of a controversy and raises many reasonable doubts [9]. He usually defers the burden of passing judgment to his readers and when he adds his own opinion, he hides it often in other chapters. As a result, some rhetorical claims could be misunderstood if taken out of context, which is most apparent when he resorts to religious exaltation in the flowery Spanish language to keep the Inquisition off his back. Because the Catalans are used to the above-mentioned subtleties, they would have noticed the satire of Baroque customs and that it was inspired by Miguel de Cervantes. Pujades raised also the bar with an index of almost 200 published sources for Part One (1609), and with references in the text and at the margins. This was rare at the time, especially when compared to Francisco Diago, a Dominican historian and inquisitor whom he challenges regularly. In dealing with the legends of Montserrat, for example, Pujades contradicts not only Diago, but also the "badly informed" Antonio de Yepes [10], an official chronicler of the Benedictines. Pujades was also the first to debunk a legend about Guifré el Pilos – who is celebrated as the founding father of Catalonia – which claims he was raised in far-away Flanders and had married a daughter of its counts. Without any reference to Pujades, modern historians exposed this legend four centuries later as a forgery by an erudite ecclesiastic [11].

          Perhaps, the critics of Pujades, who base their evaluations solely on the diaries, should at least honor the courage of their colleague by addressing some of the open questions: Why did the Spanish continuation of the Chronicle disappear for two centuries? Did Pierre de Marca really take it by "force of arms" as claimed by one of his sons? Only the diaries of 1601-1610 and 1621-1630 seem to exist, but would a passionate chronicler leave these gaps? Did Pujades capture the zeitgeist of Catalonia like an eyewitness with a publication of his diaries in mind, or did he reveal his most private thoughts? And why should we rely on a brief notice of his funeral in 1635 – if there is overwhelming evidence that he was still alive in the 1640s?

        The above questions require the kind of detective work few historians are willing to risk because no one wants to recall the darkest period in Catalan history – and because they could easily be accused of sensationalism. It's much easier to maintain that Pujades died in 1635 than having to explain why anyone would want to claim he survived his funeral by over a decade. They would have to bring up that his anti-Castilian position could have been regarded as high treason, and that he had "mortal enemies" according to Miquel Pujol i Canelles [12]. Then there is the obstacle that the Bollandists (Jesuits) and Maurists (Benedictines) copied his research methods and are now among the leading authorities on the Middle Ages because of their vast resources [13]. If this is considered only an independent study of the Chronicle could determine if Pujades had valid reasons to contradict so many church historians, and which of his findings have since been corrected for political reasons? Here is the most controversial example from the 1609 edition in Catalan, which is a rare language and could be the reason why it was overlooked by international scholars:

In the early 1600s, during a visit of Sant Pere de Rodes, an ancient Benedictine monastery in the Pyrenees, Pujades discovered a Latin text [14] which claims the monastery was built over a cave where Roman clergymen had hidden relics in the 7th century, including the skull and crossbones of St Peter and a cup with the blood of Christ. Although Pujades doesn't refer to the "Holy Grail" verbatim, he uses a sophisticated rhetoric to expose an elaborate cover-up.

         This discovery could be the reason why the Spanish version of the Chronicle remained unpublished for over two centuries! After their first disappearance, they turned up in the library of the archbishop of Rouen in 1696 who informed Pau Ignasi de Dalmases i Ros, a Catalan aristocrat and scholar, and invited him to review them. Dalmases compiled a summary in 1700 and recommended the Chronicle to his peers in Barcelona. Josep Taberner i d'Ardena, the bishop of Girona and a fellow scholar, was owed some favors at the court of Louis XIV and could get copies of some manuscripts in 1720, which also disappeared.     

          The above-mentioned Jaime Villanueva claims that Pujades had given his manuscripts to Pierre de Marca [15], which would reflect his "anti-Castilian bitterness" and the history of the period: After their revolt in 1640, the Catalans procclaimed Louis XIII as "count of Barcelona", which gave them independence from Spain – and the Vatican. Villanueva may have had access to inside information because he found the lost copies of the Chronicle in the library of Taberner's pro-French descendants [16] in the early 1800s, which made it possible to get them published. It turned out, however, that the Parisian scribe did not understand any Spanish and his transcripts had so many errors and omissions that a major revision had to be made by its editors Fèlix Torres Amat, Pròsper de Bofarull and Albert Pujol, an erudite team of scholars.

          After being lost for almost two hundred years, the work was finally published in Barcelona under the title Crònica Universal del Principado de Cataluña in six volumes between 1829 and 1832. The editors had the support of the Reial Acadèmia de Bones Lletres de Barcelona and, like Dalmases, were sympathetic to his ideas and intimately acquainted with Catalan zeitgeist and history. Hence, they seem to have made sure the censure had no linear access to the work so that all volumes could be published. They released vol. 1 (I-II) and vol. 3 (V) in 1829, followed by vol. 4 (VI) in 1830. The controversial vol. 5 (VII) was held back with vol. 2 (III-IV) until 1831, which would explain (see below) the change of position in the foreword of volume 6 (VIII), which followed in 1832. 
          In the controversial
volume 5, the editors introduced the newly discovered church register
that lists the funeral of Pujades on January 7, 1635, and add that his descendents claim Pierre de Marca had robbed the manuscripts and documents "by force of arms" from his widow. The French bishop had allegedly ordered his soldiers to evict the family and close down the house. Nevertheless, the editors felt obliged to contradict this sinister plot by suggesting that Pujades may have been alive in the 1640s, because he referred to certain notes and documents (flosculos) he had in Paris, and which suggested he had a friendly relationship with the French bishop. In the middle of vol. 2 (tomo IV), which had been held back with vol. 5, the editors reveal they had an important contact in Paris: Joseph Tastu who had published satirical journals against the French court in his youth and later became a noted scholar and printer (see short bio and detailed bio, both in French). He was a liberal like the editors and a Catalan from Perpignan who lived in Paris with his wife Amable to promote her talents as a French poet. When his print shop went out of business, Torres Amat recommended him to the academies in Spain and invited him to collaborate on his Memorias (diccionari critico). He also got him to review the original manuscripts of Pujades in Paris and correct the errors of the French scribe.  
         However, when the last volume (tomo VIII) is published in 1832, there is an unexpected change: the anonymous author of the 'Advertencia' insists Pujades had died in 1635 and accuses de Marca of having removed other unique documents during the occupation, even from the famous monasteries Santa Maria de Ripoll and Sant Jeroni de la Murta. As an important eye-witness of the period, the above-mentioned Franciscan Roig i Jalpi is quoted extensively to call the character of de Marca into question. In an elaborate dramatization of events in the 16th and 17th century the writer argues that Pujades, his father, and his son Jos
é (Josep) had served the Spanish crown with great zeal and were always pro-Castilian, which was not only disputed by the editors of the Chronicle but also by Elliott and Amelang another two hundred years later.    


2. Why should it matter when Pujades died?

If he died in 1635, which is accepted by all historians today, the forewords, first two chapters of the Chronicle (tome I, Esp. 117) and the entire last part (tome IV, Esp. 120) are elaborate forgeries, which no one dares to address! Consequently, the Catalans can continue to accuse a French bishop of "robbing" priceless documents from their churches and monasteries [17], rather than one of their own. They apparently fail to realize that Pujades saved them from disappearing in the Vatican Archives, and why so many ecclesiastics were involved in the "Pujades Affair", either in his support or in opposition. Over 25% of the Chronicle's subscribers were churchmen, including two abbots of Montserrat and an archbishop of Tarragona.

             Although it is difficult to determine if the Catholic Church was involved in the fate of Pujades, because some of his findings dispute its official position, we may have to begin with the problem that the published information gives us a choice of two scenarios:

 a) The plagiarism of Pierre de Marca

The notice of the funeral on January 7, 1635, supports the claim that the French bishop had taken the manuscripts of Pujades by "force of arms". This would have been between 1644 -1651, when he was "Visitador general" in Catalonia. In the following ten years, the protégé of Richelieu had quite a career. He became archbishop of Toulouse and minister of State, and so influential at the French court that he almost succeeded his friend Mazarin as cardinal. But Louis XIV decided to rule alone and made him (only) archbishop of Paris in 1662, the year of his death.

b) The survival of Jeroni Pujades

When the editors address the funeral, they give the Baroque plot a whole new twist: They point out "as if it were from his own mouth" Pujades had written "I'm alive today on January 6, 1645" (VII, p.349). The date is not only a major Church holiday, celebrated as "revelation" (Epiphany), but it happens to be exactly 10 years after the funeral which is quite a message! It would confirm Jaime Villanueva's account that Pujades handed his manuscripts personally to de Marca after 1635, and is supported by the Catalan Diccionari Biografic and some French and Italian biographies that maintain he died "near 1650" [18].

          These scenarios raise an important point: We have solid proof of a cover-up because only one version can be true, which exposes the other as a forgery. But which one? The first version can't be true because Pujades disputes the date of his funeral on the day of "revelation" exactly ten years later, which is impossible to dismiss as a coincidence! Furthermore, it validates the entry in the church register and makes it part of the plot! Later, when we explore the esoteric side of Pujades, we will show that the Pythagorean 10 supports the revelation on the "Day of the Magi".


3. New perspectives from Barcelona      

          In April, 2011, the Barcelona conference Jeroni Pujades i el seu temps ended two centuries of silence and finally bestowed some honors on Pujades. The previous time the Reial Acadèmia de Bones Lletres de Barcelona had praised his work was in the early 19th century when it recommended it as "an ancient codex with rare and important information, like a rich mine... for the benefit of history" [19]. This ended a century of silence after the academy was known as Acadèmia dels Desconfiats (Academy of the Distrustful). One of its founders was the above mentioned Dalmases, the scholar who had studied the lost Chronicle in Rouen and communicated to his peers how highly he thought of Pujades. These endorsements are an important legacy most modern historians tend to ignore!

           One of the organizers of the Barcelona event was Eulàlia Miralles, who talked about the "posteritat" of Pujades, and James Amelang addressed "el dietari", the diaries of Pujades. Until their papers become available to the public, we can only hope they had the courage to bring up Pierre de Marca and mentioned that Pujades could have survived his "funeral" in 1635. Although they are regarded as the leading experts, they probably avoided this controversy by embracing the hypothesis of Marc Mayer (p.220), one of the guest speakers who suggested that Josep, the son of Pujades, may have given his manuscripts to de Marca in 1651. Although Mayer et al. impress with their defense of Pujades against an obscure German scholar, their reference supports neither the handover nor its date [20]. If they have the entire letter, where this is allegedly stated, the implications are not as convenient as it may seem to them: They would merely support a hand-over of additional documents after the death of Pujades.

           Antoni Cobos and Joaquim Tremoleda presented a paper about Pujades i Sant Pere de Rodes and if they have done their homework would have featured his greatest discovery at the monastery: the above-mentioned Latin chronicle 223. Hence, we await with curiosity if this group of experts shared the enthusiasm of Dalmases, or if they were merely in town to recycle old ideas and enjoy world-famous Catalan cuisine. If the conference was not the overdue vindication of Pujades, and just business as usual, some erudite Catalans will hopefully revive the Acadèmia dels Desconfiats – this time on the internet!     

                Update: In 2015, a Catalan scholar provided kindly a link where these articles can be found:

      We have checked some of these these articles and the experts did indeed recycle their old ideas and covered none of the controversial subjects we have pointed out. However, this can be challenged by their students who can google "Jeroni Pujades" on the internet where all the relevant information is available. Because of what happened in Barcelona, or didn't, John H. Elliott remains the leading authority on the "Revolt of the Catalans" and he refers to Pujades as a "famous antiquarian and historian" and praises him as author of the "celebrated Corónica Universal del Principat the Cathalunya" [21]. Then there is Angela Serrano who proposed in 1988 that the Catalan aristocrat Josep Margarit is falsely characterized by prominent historians like Sanabre and Soldevila as a "mal catala" (bad Catalan) and confused terrorist. Following Josep Pella i Forgas, she disputes their claims and tries to restore his reputation as a patriot. She writes that Margarit was sent to Paris in 1641 where "he so impressed Louis XIII, Anne of Austria, and Richelieu that they made him general or governor of Catalonia" (p.218). She points out that Margarit was a "gran amic" (great friend) of Pierre de Marca (p.219), and ends with Pella who saw Margarit as a true hero and "exemplary individual with a fanatical love for Cataluña". She doesn't mention Pujades, who would have been another great friend, but shows eloquently why some Catalans were pro-French at the time.

          The dream of Catalan independence from Spain was probably too fragile to raise issues from the "Pujades Affair" even though they could shake the foundations of Catalan scholarship! How else can we explain why Eulàlia Miralles didn't bring up at the conference that she had studied the manuscripts of Pujades at the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) in 2002 and made some important discoveries?  She found out that the prologues in tome I (Esp. 117) and the entire tome IV (Esp. 120) with the references to the 1640s, are not written by Pujades himself, but by a scribe! She identifies the Franciscan friar and historian Francesc Fornés who had signed the prologue of the translator. She also points out that he added notes to the other manuscripts, like an editor, and improved the flawed Spanish of Pujades (p.230), and that Fornés belonged to a "pro-French nucleus... of historians and erudite Catalans who were under the protection of Pierre de Marca." (p. 231). This is a major break-through for our researches because the Franciscan is the missing link between de Marca and Pujades, which would support Villanueva's account of their friendly relationship but this was apparently too controversial for the Barcelona conference!  


4. Was Pujades murdered in 1635?              

        It is difficult to understand why over a decade has passed since the discoveries of Miralles were published, yet she and her peers continue to maintain that Pujades died in 1635. They seem to ignore the fact that he was a "famous historian" (Elliott) and that there are no records of his death in either Barcelona, Castelló d'Empúries or Figueres, only the obituary. Nevertheless, as long as his peers maintain he died in 1635, they are obviously accepting every reference to the 1640s in the last volume of the Crònica as a forgery by Fornés. However, these claims are not limited to dates, which could be dismissed as typos, but they include complex references that challenge the reader to figure out their meaning and calculate the dates, as we will show below. If this elaborate scheme is dismissed as a forgery, it means that the eloquent Franciscan was not only very cunning, but violated every rule of his order! Although little is known about his vita Miralles found proof that Fornés may have been bribed  –  although she refrains from making the accusation  –  because he was nominated by Louis XIII in 1643 as Bishop of Urgell. She refers in footnote 29 (p. 231) to a letter de Marca had written to Le Tellier in 1645 where he requests that two-hundred fifty escudos are sent to Fornés as a down-payment for a pension the king had granted him as bishop of Urgell.

          The complexity and size of the forged manuscripts and the large payment to Fornés implies that a major crime could have been committed and was covered up, which might be another reason why historians ignore it. However, if Pujades had really died of natural causes in 1635, why would de Marca bribe a Franciscan in 1643 with the help of the king of France to pretend he survived his funeral and let him include the message "I'm alive today on January 6, 1645"?  Only conspiracy theorists would be able to maintain Pujades died in 1635! They would have to explain why de Marca, a former protégé of Richelieu and friend of Mazaran, wasn't smart enough to hire a scribe who could imitate the handwriting of Pujades. And finally, they would have to come up with a reason why Fornés was allowed to add his signature, and why it was crossed out later!


5. The manuscripts at the BnF 

           In the early 1980s, when we first examined the Crònica in Paris, the four manuscripts were in excellent condition and seemed untouched for centuries. They have greatly deteriorated in thirty years because of improper handling and their conversion to microfilm. The first volume (Esp.117) is virtually falling appart and a consultation of the microfilm is mandatory. Checking the orginal requires the permission of a senior librarian, which is necessary because the signature of Fornés is for some unknown reason blocked out by a dark rectangle on the microfilm. The sample below is not a photocopy, only a quick sketch by this writer in 1989, long before Miralles had identified Fornés (p. 264).

 It shows that it was impossible to decipher "Fray Francisco Fornés" and "Indigno fray menor", if the answer is unknown. Decades later, in May, 2017, scholars need no longer rely on inferior copies or sketches, but are allowed to photograph the actual documents at the BnF. Here's the crossed-out signature taken with an iphone:

        That Fornés penned the first part of Esp. 117 and the entire Esp. 120 could support the conjecture that the beginning and end of the Crònica were replaced by a forger, but wouldn't the signature eliminate such an adventurous idea? 

             Miralles (p. 229) notes that Pujades "wrote always" one column on the left side of a page to leave room for comments and illustrations at the right, which reveals she didn't have access to Esp. 119 where Pujades started using the entire page. The scan of the page shows the headline "Jhs Maria Francisco", which Miralles would have addressed had she seen it. The "Jhs" is the Christogram iota-eta-sigma (IΗΣ) from the first three letters of the Greek name of Jesus because the Latin-alphabet letters I and J were not systematically distinguished until the 17th century, making "JHS" and "JHC" an equivalent of "IHS" and "IHC."

          There used to be a Franciscan convent by the name of Jesús Maria in Barcelona, which indicates the manuscripts could have been deposited there at one time. The headline takes up so much space that Reg 10010 and Baluze 170 was probably added later at the upper margin. Open remains the question whether the red stamp of the Bibliothèque Royale pertains to the former or latter registry?  Because the "fonds Baluze" were established after the scholar's death in the early 18th century, the 10010 should identify the library of the archbishop of Rouen, another controversy we'll address at the end of this article.        


6. The unsolved mystery of Esp. 119

           That Miralles had limited access is also revealed by her comment in footnote 19 (p. 229) that "another hand, French and posterior, added some notes to ms. Esp. 119". Had she seen it, she would have mentioned that starting with book XII, chapter one (Barcelona edition, tome VI, p. 320), an anonymous scribe had written the next 28 chapters. They are one of the highlights of the history of Catalonia because they cover the last years of Guifré el Pilos, the celebrated founding father of Catalonia, including his patronage of Santa Maria de Ripoll, and the history and legends of Montserrat, which Pujades introduces with the passion of a poet because it is so revered by the Catalans. But he never forgets that he is a legal expert and backs up his poetic "illustrations" with a judicial tour de force: He exposes the forged legends of Guifré el Pilos and connects them to the forged legends of the Black Madonna. During his rhetorical arguments, some covert others openly, Pujades debunks the claims of Francisco Diago and the "badly informed" Antonio de Yepes (Barcelona, tome VI, pp. 384-388 ), and continues with Montserrat until the end of chap. 28 (Barcelona, p. 418) and all in the hand of an anonymous scribe.

        Although we assumed Fornés had penned these chapters, because of similarities in the Baroque style, we compared the handwriting of the manuscripts again in early 2011 and concluded that these chapters are probably not by Fornés, unless he was much younger at the time. (See samples!) If they were written in the 1640s, however, we wouldn't be surprised if a graphologist identifies friar Joan Roig i Jalpi. The scribe uses such a fluid style that he was obviously copying some drafts. In fact, we can document that Pujades did not dictate every chapter: In the beginning of chapter 29, p. 472, (Barcelona, p. 419), the scribe stops in the second line after "...des del año 885. Reynaba en Francia Carlos crasso” and Pujades continues in mid-sentence with “poseyendo aquellos estados por lo menos des del año hasta al año...”, and keeps on writing until the end of the volume. You can click on the detail to see more of the page! It shows the scribe above and Pujades below and, as customary at the time, both use often an s that looks like an f. The difference of their style is most noticeable after the above 885 with 'Rey'..., which is quite ornamental and not as simple as the 'des', 'del' and 'movido de' of Pujades.

The interaction is documented like a scene in a play: When the scribe stops, Pujades seems to grab the pen and makes a mistake he has to scratch out.  When he continues, he runs out of ink which shows there was a discussion or argument. Similar corrections continue on the next page, an indication that Pujades had not fully recovered, and some corrections are actually paper swatches that are glued on the page. Two explanations come to mind why Pujades could have been upset: He either didn't know the scribe had completed his "illustration" of Montserrat, which he had been looking forward to, or he disagreed with the scribe's changes. Without knowledge of the change of hands, apparently, the editors of the Barcelona edition sided with Pujades and rephrased the portion of the scribe with: "...desde el año ochocientos ochenta y cinco reinabia in Francia el emperador Cárlos craso...", but left the continuation of Pujades unchanged:  "... poseyendo aquellos estados por lo menos hasta el año...".

          Pujades completed the volume himself, but the inserted 28 chapters show there was a period he was unable to do the work and had to use a scribe. Furthermore, the continuation in mid-sentence establishes several facts: 1. It documents that Pujades had suddenly entered the room.  2. The scribe was not up to the task and a better scribe had to be found if Pujades was unable to supervise everything. 3. This opens the door for Fornés, who was a historian himself! Furthermore, the decision of Pujades to use the whole page indicates that he had to reduce the size of the manuscript, because both volumes, Esp. 119 and 120, have strong crease marks, which indicates they had to be concealed. The sketch at right was made in 1989 at the BnF and shows a view from above how two pages are connected in the middle and then folded in half. Because the manuscripts are quite voluminous, only a few chapters can be folded at a time, which implies they had to be transported in a clandestine way [22]. The patchwork on the pages suggests that Pujades had an inflamatory illness like arthritis, which made it difficult to write and that he needed a permanent scribe to complete his work.


Castelló d'Empúries

7. First evidence that the funeral was staged.

      Before we enter the Baroque maze deeper than most scholars are willing to risk, we need to visit the town where Pujades allegedly died and address the unsolved mystery of his obituary. The editors of the Crònica had to rely on a certified, hand-written copy, dated August 23, 1831, which they translated from Catalan to Spanish [23]. Two hundred years later, it is faily simple to get a scan from the register itself, which is archived in Girona. Here is the whole page from and a detail of the Pujades entry, both with the contrast enhanced because of some water damage. The few lines state that on January 7, 1635, the corpse of Pujades, a doctor of law, was buried. He had received the final sacraments during an illness, was lying in state at the above church Santa Maria and then taken to the monastery Sant Francesc for burial. Each chaplain was paid two sueldos and the rector four.

              We double-checked the obituaries in May, 2017, and need to confirm that it is a valid document. The fact that the date of death is missing has no relevance according to the librarian because funerals were scheduled on the following day. Hence, if we are correct in assuming that Pujades staged his own funeral, he would have chosen January 6 for good reasons. 

             Father Miquel Pujol i Canelles (1927-2011) was a philologist, historian and the rector at the church of Vilafant at the outskirts of Figueres where the ancestors of Pujades resided for many generations [24]. In addition to Miralles, Pujol is the most important informant for this article because he compiled a detailed "Aportació a la biografia de Jeroni Pujades...", which can be downloaded here.  His familiarity with the local customs allowed him to correct Josep Maria Casas Homs (1894-1979) who edited the diaries and concluded that the body of Pujades was interred at Santa Maria where the funeral is registered (p.117). This error may have been another reason why no one suspects a cover-up, but Father Pujol points out that after an abuse by the Franciscans it was mandatory since 1618 (p.148) that a deceased person had to lie in state at the parish church Santa Maria before the funeral was permitted at another location in Castelló. To show that the enforcement was merely pro forma and not a public ceremony in the case of Pujades, he emphasizes that he was taken to Santa Maria and transferred "immediately" to his family crypt at the Franciscan monastery outside the city's walls (p.160).  (Note: Sant Francesc is referenced as both, a convent and monastery.)   

        Father Pujol researched the archives in Girona and discovered the testament of Pujades, notarized Oct. 20, 1634, and the inventory of his possessions, notarized Jan. 27, 1635 (p.152). These are specific dates, including his funeral on January 7, 1635, yet the date of death continues to be ignored. This is  difficult to explain because Pujades was a prominent personage in Barcelona: He got married there in 1592, taught canon law at the University, and ran a successful law practice. In addition to private clients, he represented the city council, several universities and monasteries. He became a judge at the Appellate Court in 1603 and was retained by the city as a consultant for many "delicate cases". Pujol writes also (p. 154) that he travelled much in the region, even across the Pyrenees, where the "illustrious chronicler" resolved a case of espionage with the French, which enhanced his reputation. Nevertheless, Pujades changed his life dramatically in 1604 when he accepted the position of assessor and general commissioner for the Duchess of Cardona, countess of Empúries, and moved with his wife and children to Castelló d'Empúries (p. 157). His father, a prominent attorney in Barcelona, had been born in nearby Figueres, and this took him back to where this ancestors resided for centuries. After only two years in Castelló,  however, his wife of fourteen years died in 1606 and he married Salvadora a year later, a woman half his age.

         When the duchess died in 1608, Pujades returned with his family to Barcelona and continued his law practice, got the first part of his Crònica published, and enjoyed the cosmopolitan lifestyle of the big city (p. 158). According to Pujol, he handled religious matters for the Church, political cases for representatives of the Spanish Viceroy, even for the Shah of Persia, and the usual quarrels among nobles (p. 159). But after 14 years, he accepted the position of "general assessor" for the fortress of Roses in 1623, which took him back to the land of his ancestors. Pujol does not mention that this change gave Pujades more time to work on the Crònica and features instead the many uncles, nieces and cousins that lived in the county (p. 153) as if he wanted to show that the death and funeral of such an illustrious personage should have been documented somewhere!


8. The Franciscan connection 

          Thanks to the researches of Angela Serrano and Eulàlia Miralles we have learned that there was a nucleus of pro-French Catalans during the revolt against Spain that included Margarit, de Marca and Francesc Fornés. The latter penned the controversial parts of the Crònica which would be a forgery if Pujades had died in 1635.  However, the first historian to mention that a Second Part of the Crònica existed was the Franciscan friar Joan Roig i Jalpi in 1678. He wrote in the foreword of his Resumen... that the work is in French hands, see scan of page, and had obviously read it because he praises it as "worth more, without comparison, than all the treasures of Venice". Friar Joan was born in 1624 and therefore only eleven in 1635 when Pujades allegedly died, which is solid proof that he either met Pujades in the 1640s or was given access to the manuscripts by de Marca or Fornés, making him the last to publish first-hand information. Furthermore, he was from the coastal town Blanes and shares the name 'Roig' with the first wife of Pujades from nearby Mataro, which is the subject of one of his works and a strong indication they were related. Of equal interest is the name 'Jalpi' which he shares with his cousin Josep de Jalpí i Juliá, the illustrious prior of Santa Maria de Meià. The personal relationship of the prior with Pujades will be covered below, including the prior's employment of his cousin to write a book about the priory. Friar Joan became later its official 'examinador sinodal' for Girona and Barcelona and the 'provincial' of the entire Franciscan order in Catalonia. This closes the circle because it establishes that well-connected Franciscans had inside information about the "Pujades Affair" from the start.

       According to Pujol (pp.147, 163-64) Pujades embraced the "Franciscan sprit" by becoming a lay member of the Third Rule, which is documented in the new will he made a few weeks before his alleged death (see scan of first page). He requested the usual Franciscan burial without vanity and superficial pomp, to be dressed like an undignified Franciscan friar minor and buried in a simple casket as poor as a pauper. However, Pujades ended his requests with the unusual demand that his name should not be put on his grave and, "especially", that no one should carry his corpse on their shoulders (p. 234). This request, which was obviously fulfilled, suggests that the coffin could have been empty and that there was neither a procession nor public funeral. 

        In view of Pujol's comprehensive research, a scenario comes to mind that a friar like Fornés could have easily arranged with the help of a few friends: January 7, 1635 was a Sunday, a day after Epiphany, which is celebrated as Festa de Reyes for the children of the parish. The rector of Santa Maria had therefore a busy weekend and was easily persuaded by a friendly friar to "simplify matters" in the Franciscan spirit and look the other way, especially if he was a friend of Pujades and got paid as recorded in the register. Consequently, an empty coffin could have been deposited briefly in the parish church of Castelló d'Empúries and taken "immediately" to the monastery outside the city walls and deposited in the family crypt inside the church. It didn't even have to be buried, but was simply placed there and the wall sealed again as customary to this day! 

           This raises an interesting question: Would the Franciscans desecrate such a holy place with the Baroque farce of a fake funeral? If we check Pujol (p.164) he seems to have anticipated our question because he points out that the family crypt of Pujades in Castelló was empty at the time. All remains had been transferred to the Franciscan convent Sant Nicolau in Barcelona, where his parents had been entombed. Any Franciscan would have gladly supported such a well-organized plot to save a human life and wouldn't regard it as a sacrilege to put an empty coffin inside an empty crypt. Something we can no longer prove because, according to Pujol (p.114), the monastery and church were destroyed in 1822, shortly before the Crònica was published. His source is the well-known historian Francesc Monsalvatge i Fosas (1853 - 1917) whose account is quite intriguing because he quotes from an informant, who appears to have been an eye-witness, that "the bones of Pujades and his tombstone" were singled out by an "illustrious personage" and "thrown into a moat" (see link).  More research is necessary, because the Spanish government disowned monasteries with less than twelve monks by "Royal Decret" of July, 1836" and the properties were auctioned off, including the ruins of San Francesc.  It has been said that many purchased them to dig for treasure, which thickens the Baroque cover-up substantially. The coffin of Pujades could have contained important documents and the "personage" may have removed the evidence.

          In addition to the last will of Pujades, the amazing Father Pujol published the probated list of his belongings, including the library, and made it available on-line a few years before his own death. The fact that the Crònica and its documention is not mentioned in the testament and inventory is solid evidence for our conjectures, which Pujol (p.199) supports by speculating they had been delivered to Pierre de Marca, which he sees as an open question that is still pending! He also points out that some books are missing from the inventory, even Don Quixote, which implies that Pujades took some of his favorite books along when he went into hiding. Thanks to the noted historian Luis R. Corteguera, who is a leading expert on the Catalan revolt, Pujol's open question has finally been answered:

                    One of the oldest editions of the legend "Relació del cas d'en Pere Porter..." is at the BnF in Paris and has some marginal notes from Pujades, which Corteguera discusses in detail [25]. The fact that it is registered under Baluze is therefore proof that he inherited this book in 1662 after the death of Pierre de Marca. Because it is a popular legend in Catalonia about a peasant who claims to have visited hell, it's not the kind of document the bishop would have taken "by force of arms" from the widow of Pujades. It supports our conjecture that de Marca had arranged for Pujades to keep some of his favorite books after the staged funeral. If the missing diaries show up as well, they might even reveal that Pujades and de Marca had been friends for decades because they were both doctors of canon and civil law and shared a passion for history. According to the Online Ecyclopedia " 1617, at the age of twenty-three, he (i.e. de Marca) had set to work looking through archives, copying charters, and corresponding with the principal men of learning of his time..."  Gaquère writes that de Marca started his "Histoire de Béarn" in 1617 and completed it in 1633. Although it has been said that he plagiarized the Catalan edition of the Crònica, a personal contact would be much more plausible! This would also solve a problem of our conjecture, because there is no evidence that de Marca was in Catalonia to arrange the "funeral" in 1635. But in view of Occam's Razor, a Franciscan concept, the simple solution of the fake funeral with the help of de Marca would make a lot more sense than the elaborate Baroque plot of forged volumes that casts a French bishop as the villain who corrupted a Franciscan friar to become his accomplice.     

Friar Joan Roig i Jalpi praised "the illustrious and magnificent Señor Archbishop of Paris, Pierre de Marca... great investigator of antiquities and one of the most esteemed geographers of his time", a decade before the Marca Hispanica was published by Baluze [26]. We have shown that he may have been Villanueva's informant because he was the first to accuse Baluze of plagiarism, to have read the unpublished Second part of the Crònica, and to report that the archbishop took it to France. This was published in 1678 and is persuasive evidence for a "Franciscan connection" in support of Pujades. Miralles collected the sparse information about Francesc Fornés and localized him in 1632 in Conflente, which was part of Catalonia until the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659), and in Paris between 1642 and 1643, when Louis XIII made him bishop of Urgell. He was back in Catalonia in 1645 and preached a well-documented sermon in Barcelona on January 12, 1646, in which he criticized Roman Catholicism and praised Gallicanism as promoted by de Marca. Hence, he could have worked with Pujades between 1632 and 1646.


9. An important second opinion 

          As we explore this Baroque maze, an investigation of the death of Pujades would have to include the most qualified experts, the scholars who edited his works two centuries ago, right between Pujades and our era: Fèlix Torres Amat, Pròsper de Bofarull, and Albert Pujol. They had the support of the Reial Acadèmia de Bones Lletres de Barcelona, knew every word Pujades has written and everything that was written about him. Like Dalmases, they were sympathetic to his esoteric concept and intimately acquainted with Catalan zeitgeist and history. We had mentioned above that they seem to have made sure the censure would not have linear access and held back the controversial vol. 5 (VII) until 1831. It is probably not a coincidence that Torres Amat, the leader of the team, began his retirement in 1831, which is supported by the change of position by an anonymous author of the foreword in vol. 6 (VIII), which followed in 1832.

          These interventions may have been an attempt to silence the editors who were apparently convinced that Pujades survived his funeral in 1635. This is also implied in the "Memorias..." of Torres Amat et al. The extensive biography of Pujades (pp. 509-515) follows his praise in the Crònica very closely, yet the scholar concludes:

"No he podido averguar de fijo el dia ni año en que murió..."

("I could neither establish conclusively the day nor year he died", p. 509)

       The Memorias were published in 1836, five years after volume 5 of the Crònica , yet Torres Amat [27] limited himself to the above disclaimer and neither included the date of the funeral from volume 5 nor the alleged pro-Castilian views of Pujades an anonymous writer had claimed in the foreword of volume 6. We should also keep in mind that he had the support of the Catalan scholar Joseph Tastu in Paris, as mentioned earlier, who contributed to the Memorias and double-checked for him the Crònica at the Bibliothèque Royale. Critics might argue that his retirement prevented Torres Amat from making corrections, but there was a political change and his position restored when he became Bishop of Astorga in 1834. Unless it was meant to remove him from his sphere of influence in Barcelona, he would have revised his views if necessary because he had just spent years with the Crònica and was deeply involved with all aspects of the controversy. He had even adapted the rhetorical style of Pujades and suggested, among other things, that he phrased one of his claims in flawed Spanish as if coming "from his own mouth". The unique idea that Pujades had found a way to speak to his readers from the grave will be the subject of our final arguments!

           The editors (see link) were not only important academics in Spain, but also liberals like Villanueva who had to flee to England and spend the rest of his life there. If we consider further that the Crònica was censured and required a royal license, we probably owe it to their sophistication and connections that it could be published in the first place. Pujades exposed so many controversies and included numerous, esoteric messages that only a publication in a country like France would have been possible in the early 1600s. Two hundred years later, the editors were able to solve these problems rhetorically, like Pujades, and honored him by always addressing both sides of a controversy, even in 1831 when they had to introduce the obituary. They questioned its relevance by pointing out that Pujades referred repeatedly to some curious notes or sources he had in Paris: ...ut habes in flosculo meo primo, o secundo, ut habes in flosculo meo Parisiensi, etc. which they allegedly found difficult to explain. They speculated that if these notes were already in Paris during his lifetime, Pujades had a friend there who "could have been the archbishop of Paris..." (tome VII, p.III). They avoid mentioning his name but imply de Marca's support when Pujades was still alive, which is confirmed by Villanueva's account and would explain why the Crònica is not mentioned in the will. The editors write that the flosculo are at the Bibliothèque Royale (today BnF) in Paris, and also registered under Baluze (mss. 234, 238, 239). It remains to be seen if the list is complete, although Jesús Villanueva Lopéz writes, following d'Abadal, that only one document from the flosculo is used in the Marca Hispanica [28]. But, according to the erudite editors, these were "flosculo ó documentos antiguos" (Tome IV, p. II), which appears to be a message that all Catalan documents from Pujades and de Marca were meant, perhaps even the Gesta comitum barcinonensium which is also registered under Baluze.

          Although the editors do not openly question the obituary, they follow the kind of rhetorical set-ups Pujades had used in his works. They obviously knew that the Franciscan monastery where Pujades was allegedly entombed, had been destroyed in 1822 (Pujol i Canelles), but refrain from bringing it up. Instead of closing the "advertencia" (Tome VII, p. IV) with the destruction of his tomb and date of his death, as readers would have expected, they link an inscription on an ancient church in Empuries to a veiled reference (p. 11) about the     

"inteligencia del cómputo de los años"

and close with this church and another, Nuestra Señora del Pino (Santa Maria del Pi) in Barcelona where Pujades was confirmed as a child in 1574. We will show below that it is a sophisticated idea Pujades had used to show his readers how to make calculations to reach a higher level and the esoteric time-capsule! 


10. The mental world of Pujades           

Before we look at the hidden messages of Pujades a disturbing fact needs to be addressed that would eliminate his competence as an unbiased historian. We had mentioned earlier that some scholars describe Pujades as an "an over-zealous Roman catholic with a deep hatred of Protestants and heretics", but the actual critique is even more severe: According to Amelang, the diaries of Pujades reveal his "xenophobia" and that he was a "fervent Catholic" who followed traditional religious practices like "the veneration of relics and saints". Furthermore, his "remarks on religious matters betray a militant and highly defensive awareness of being engaged in an endless battle against heresy", and he was "obedient to the apostolic Catholic Roman see an attitude which explains his (rare) expression of delight when he heard of a massacre of Huguenots in southern France in 1611." Amelang concludes: "It is perhaps this, the dark side of Pujades for the modern reader, that best testifies to his role as a spokesman for his times and for a mental world most would regard as better left behind." [29]

This is devastating news for aficionados of the Crònica, and especially for the 'Pujades Affair', because it means that "ignorant" (Baluze) and "prejudicial" (Amelang) are valid characterizations of Pujades, and are putting it kindly! Because the author of the Crònica is such a different person, any attempt to vindicate Pujades should start with a contemporary of Amelang, the historian and priest Miquel Pujol whom we cited above. He wrote that he hoped his research "can serve as an homage to the great personage Jeroni Pujades and contribute to a better understanding of this extraordinary figure". Father Pujol describes him as "definitely a humanist" and emphasizes that it can only be said from the point of view of the diaries that the comments of Pujades are "marked by a religiosity of superstitious and naive beliefs" [30]. Later, when Pujol summarizes the impressive library (pp.175-80) he notes that "the intellectual curiosity of our jurist is really impressive", and that Pujades expresses in the diaries "a deep faith, sincerity, and openess that is rather strange for a man of such high culture" (p.193). Coming from an erudite priest this is persuasive evidence that Pujades narrated his diaries and the Crònica from different points of views!  

     However, we have shown above that Pujades liked to emulate the satirical style of Miguel de Cervantes with passionate, religious outbursts. This was apparently part of his rhetorical concept to keep inquisitors off his back while it entertained the Catalans because they knew it was over the top. Johannes Kepler was a contemporary of Pujades and he regretted that some things could not be said openly because of the "suffocating" power of the church in the "unfortunate" age he had to live in [31]. The Baroque era was marked by religious conflicts and "declarations of faith" were expected by everyone, even by scientists and humanists like Newton in their works. We tend to forget that all scholars studied rhetoric in those days, and that Pujades may have used his diaries to report the zeitgeist from the point of view of a fervent Catholic, which gets even unintentional support from Amelang who labels him as a "spokesman" and noted the "unbiographical" character of his diaries. 

            Aficionados of the Crònica can confirm that aside from the usual declarations of faith and some satirical phrases, Pujades was never a "fervent" supporter of the "apostolic Catholic Roman see" as the diaries suggest. He had no high regard for Church historians and attacked them regularly in the Crònica, and actually displayed a Catalan version of French Gallicanism by criticizing Rome and Madrid when Catalan abbots and monks were replaced by Italians and Spaniards. This is definitely not the "xenophobia" Amelang noticed or the editors of the Barcelona editions would have pointed it out! What they do say, repeatedly, is that we must understand the difficult period in which the "wise" and "indefatigable chronicler" had to do his work which implies that he could not express himself openly, like Kepler. In tome VII, p.28, they add in a footnote that he admired "la mania del Heroe del inmortal Cervantes, coetano de nuestro Cronista" and Pujol points out as well that Pujades referred to Cervantes already in in tome V, at the end of chapter VI of book IX (p.215). When the editors praise in another footnote the "genius, subtleness and erudition of the chronicler" (see below), it fully contradicts his over-zealous expressions in the diaries. Hence, before modern historians pass judgment on their peer of four hundred years ago, and simply base it on the diaries because they don't have the time to study the Crònica, they should review the evaluation of Father Pujol, who made a clear distinction between the diarist and the chronicler! However, if a local historian and priest is not prestigeous enough for an academic vindication of Pujades, as enlightnened as he may have been, they would be well-advised to consider the opinion of the liberal editors of his works. The evidence suggests that Pujades had the ingenius idea to play the "devil's advocate" for the Baroque zeitgeist in his diaries to document the most tragic period in Catalan history! This is why we propose, following Amelang, that Pujades presented the official "dark side" like a true journalist in his diaries, which most Catalans regard "as better left behind", and that he used the Crònica to express his enlightened views as a humanist and, with the full support of his editors, found a way to add a hermetic 'time capsule' to preserve his liberal side for posterity.


11. Did Pujades "cheat the devil"? 

        "The mental world of Pujades" which we used above is borrowed from Amelang because Pujades inhabited a complex, Baroque world in which even the etiquette restricted free speech. This remains an obstacle for most historians today because their academic discipline is rather "forensic" and almost exclusively based on the examination of facts. When they read an obituary they have no other options, it seems to close their mind. Scientists, on the other hand, have the freedom to be creative, which is why Einstein said "imagination is more important than knowledge". Only this kind of interdisciplinary approach makes it possible to explore the complex mind of Pujades, and especially his references to the 1640s, which are packed with hidden messages about his life and death. They stand out because such trivia has no place in a historical work, not even in an "illustration" of Catalonia, as it turns off serious historians who can't imagine that it is an important, rhetorical tool. Besides, they would have to accuse two bishops, de Marca and Fornés, of having invented the "time capsule" as part of their voluminous forgery, which they wouldn't dare bring up as their own reputation could be at stake!

          The first example of the "inteligencia del cómputo de los años" is offered in tome VII, p. 125, when Pujades requests an imaginative calculation with his "confirmation" as a child on Monday, April 26, 1574. An important clue is that it occurred in the parish of the above-mentioned church Nuestra Señora del Pino (in Catalan "del Pi" π) of which he says "it was built in 970, making it over 670 years old". The requested calculation takes us to the 1640s, and Pujades confirms in the middle of the next page that we are on the right track by revealing his age as '76 años de mi edad' in the context of the symbolism of the pine tree. He goes on to link the name of the church to Greek mythology, to Pan's adoration of Pitys whom he transforms into a sacred pine tree, which is mortal but sheds its seeds like tears. After this hint at St Matthew and Chrétien's Conte du Graal, he points out that Jesus was born from a mortal Mary, which concealed his divinity from the demons according to St Jerome, and ut ejus partus celaretur a diabolo was a way to cheat the devil. How he develops this in the context of his own mortality may seem like weird stuff for historians who dismiss our detective work as pseudo-scholarship, but they should at least try to understand his complex rhetoric because their peers of the 19th century, the liberal editors of the Crònica were quite impressed! As shown above, they add in a footnote (tome VII, p.127):      

"Esta metafora nos da una idea del ingenio, sutileza y erudicion del Cronista"

(This metaphor gives us an idea of the genius, subtleness and erudition of the chronicler.)

That Pujades found a way to "cheat the devil" himself is confirmed exactly 54 chapters later, probably because Plato calculated (1 + (1x2) + (1x3) +4 +9 + 8 + 27 = 54) for the Generations of the Soul. The calculation mode continues when Pujades mentions the year 1637 (p.339) and the year 1645 (below) three times in the context of the priory Maria de Meyá [32]:

 1. “En que se pone la lista ó catálogo de los (nombres de los) Priores que ha tenido el priorato de Meyá desde el año 1005 hasta el que corremos hoy, que es el de 1645…" (Here is a list or catalog of the priors of the priory of Meyá from the year 1005 until today, which is 1645...  p.347)

 2. “…los años y nombres de los que lo fueron desde dicho año 1005 hasta el presente de 1645 en que es prior el ilustre José de Jalpí y Juliá, y son los que siguen…" ( ...the years and names from 1005 until the present in 1645, when the illustrious José de Jalpí y Juliá is the prior, are the following..."  p.347)

 3. “En el año 1633, á 15 del mes de agosto del dicho año, tomó la posesion del priorato de santa Maria de Meyá el ilustre é insigne José Jalpí y de Juliá teniendo de edad solos 28 años 11 meses y 7 dias. Vive hoy que contamos 6 de enero del año 1645 ..." (In the year 1633, on August 15 of said year, took possession of the priory Santa Maria de Meyá the illustrious and renowned José Jalpí y de Juliá of only 28 years, 11 months, and 7 days of age. He is – or: I am – alive today, which is January 6 of the year 1645..." p. 349)

      In view of his "genius, subtleness and erudition", we are not surprised that Pujades anticipated the identity problem and decided to speak to his readers from the grave but phrased in flawed Castilian "as if it were from his own mouth"!

      With the above claim in bad Spanish, which Fornés did not correct, Pujades gives his readers another chance to be ahead of the experts because of the esoteric reference to the seeds of the pine he had planted earlier! Or, as Chrétien said in the opening lines of the Conte du Graal to set up his "contes" (calculations):  "If the seeds are planted in a rich soil, the fruits will be a hundred fold". This is based on a parable of St Matthew, whom Pujades follows by picking January 6, one of the holiest days in Christianity, to reveal he is still alive as we have mentioned above. He uses the gospel in a most dramatic way to hand us the "magic key" to unlock his hermetic time capsule because it is the day of the Biblical Magi, celebrated as epiphany ("revelation" in Greek, "to manifest" or "to show") – which demands a closer look at his words:

"Vive hoy que contamos 6 de enero del año 1645..."

        Now that Pujades has trained his readers to "count" and "compute the years", the leitmotif of  Chrétien's prologue, he challenges them to start a bit of computing. They have to conclude that January 6, 1645 disputes his death of exactly 10 years earlier. In addition to this revelation, which confirms the Franciscan funeral with an empty coffin, we will show below that computing is the key to the esoteric "time capsule" on several levels. Its secrets are easily unlocked if we keep in mind that Pujades was an attorney and judge who conducted his historical research always from a legal point of view.

          In dealing with the identity problem, because this is written by Fornés, he decided to represent himself and guide his readers through the Baroque maze personally. According to the established facts there is the date of a funeral, which would mean he had died ten years earlier, but it is only circumstantial evidence! There is no death certificate, no date of death and no corpus delicti – only a brief record of the funeral. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence to the contrary: Illustrious bishops and archbishops are involved, even Louis XIII and the court of France! The "revelation" and challenge of exactly ten years refers to the Pythagorean 10 (1+2+3+4) and Plutarch's comments [33] about Plato's Timaeus, where the riddle of the lifespan of the Phoenix is calculated by subtracting the claim of the nymphs because they are lying when they pretend to live as long as ten phoenixes. These are, of course, messages for a future generation to open his coffin – which may have contained some important documents although Pujades couldn't foresee that the monastery would be reduced to rubble.

          The research of Pujol in the 1980s is currently being integrated into this manuscript, because his Aportació was posted on the internet in 2008, and noticed by us a couple of years later. Although this part is still a work in progress, it is significant that Pujol wrote works about the poets of the 13th century and the history of the Jews, themes that connect to grail romance. It is no surprise, therefore, that his rhetoric supports the scenario of a fake funeral with important bits of evidence he distributes throughout his manuscript, like Kepler his "golden corns", which indicates Pujol recognized the esoteric "time-capsule" and decided to help preserve the truth for posterity. Like Pujades, he challenges his readers to start with calculations when they look at Part Two (p.152), which is more subtle than it seems. He begins with the testament of Pujades on Oct. 20, 1634, and the inventory of Jan. 27, 1635, to find they are two months and a half apart and strangely different, even though they were signed by the same notary. Yet his calculation is rather vague because 2.5 moths would take us from Friday, Oct. 20, 1634, to Jan. 5, 1635, two days short to the funeral, which is not mentioned on that page and can't be referenced. The plot thickens after "Jan. 27, 1635..." when the sentence continues with " ten days after the death of Jeroni Pujades – the widow as the executor ordered the invenory of the movable possessions of her husband". Could this be a modern version of the above Baroque calculations, where the Pythagorean 10 is used to dispute the funeral? There is no other way to explain the absurd suggestion because the date of death is unknown, and 27 minus 10 would get to January 17, which excludes the date of death because it is 10 days after the funeral.

          Eight pages later (p. 160) Pujol expresses his regrets that the diaries after 1631 are missing, which he knows from another source to have existed, and then adds casually that "Pujades died at age 67... and was buried on January 7, 1635", and then confuses 1631 and 1632 to reveal that his first error was not a typo (p. 199): "Why are the diaries missing after 1632...", and "why are the Crònica and flosculi not listed in the inventory, which was made barely ten days after the death of Pujades?" To show where he is going with this, Pujol adds that de Marca received the Crònica and other important manuscripts from Pujades personally, to ask the question: "was it during his official stay in Catalonia between 1644-51... or did he visit Spain earlier, on another occasion?" This is an important question for our conjectures because we contend he arranged the funeral to facilitate the escape of Pujades. It is an important clue of Pujol when he refers to Villanueva's report of the voluntary hand-over and adds that the answer to this question is still pending [34]. Another open question is the date of the inventory, and the incomplete list of around 550 books where titles and authors are mixed up, as Pujol points out. He even took the time to check the testaments of Pujades' heirs and notes that none of the missing books are listed! We have shown above that Luis Corteguera discovered one of the missing books at the Bnf, the "Relació del cas d'en Pere Porter..." registered under Baluze, which is solid proof that Pujades kept some of his favorite books. This indicates the inventory was meant to be temporary, because Pujades was alive, and Pujols creative calculation could be a message that the Pythagorean 10+10 disputes the funeral. In that case, pending further research, the above 27 is half of Plato's calculation of 54, and another reference to Putarch's phoenix riddle!

               Back to Pujades and his esoteric communications "from the grave": A judge, and doctor of civil and canon law, would never make a conclusive statement that could be false. When Pujades claims three times "...until today, which is the year 1645", "until the current year 1645", and the ambiguous "alive today, January 6, 1645..." it would be hearsay if there is no written proof he had seen the prior on that day. (The repetitious claims are also an entertaining pun on Gallicanism and Peter's three denials of Christ each time the cock crowed. Earlier, in tomo V (p. 245), Pujades had explained this in the context of Sant Pere de Galligans, the name of a monastery in Girona, which is in Latin Sancti Petri de Galli cantu). Eulàlia Miralles checked out 1645 and confirms that the prior headed the priory from 1633 to 1678, but addressed neither the secret message nor the comments of Joan Roig i Jalpi.  

         Let's consider next that Pujades established a specific day, January 6, 1645, and uses it as basis of a legal argument to show that both he and the prior were alive that day. This forces his readers to consider what he had written earlier, on p. 339, where he proves that he talked personally to the prior:

'He consoled me by saying that he would give me certain papers... (me consoló diciendo, que me daria ciertos papeles) and on the same day, he sent me one of his servants with said papers... (el mismo dia me envió un criado suyo con dichos papeles...)'. 

                To make sure his legal point is understood, he explains that the papers contained the information for the previous, the current and the following two chapters, which validates January 6, 1645 on page 349. Out of context, the conversation with the prior and delivery of papers "on the same day" would be irrelevant and much too trivial for a historical work, but necessary in this case to confirm the hidden messages. Nevetheless, historians maintain unanimously that Pujades had died in 1635 and that this and all other references to the 1640s were forged by Fornés.

          The following paragraph is in such bad Spanish that Fornés would have surely corrected it if the ambiguities didn't have a rhetorical function. Pujades writes that the "illustrious prior" was looking for an expert in 1637 another date after the funeral to search for records in his library to determine when and by whom the church and monastery were founded, and why at this specific location? After an "exhausting and tiring" and seemingly endless search, the prior found only one document from the year 1005 CE that lists Maria de Meyá as a Benedictine priory. Pujades implies that he was involved by adding that it may have been founded by Charlemagne, or by his son Louis the Pious. However, friar Joan Roig i Jalpi was in his early twenties by then and could have worked for Pujades, and later continued these researches which were published in 1678. Pujades mentions that Maria de Meyá was originally part of Urgell, which is another important bit of information as we will show below.

             It seems Fornés didn't change the most confusing claims of Pujades because of their rhetoric function: Six chapters after Maria de Meyá, he weaves the complex history of Ermesenda through nine chapters and makes calculations to prepare his readers for a higher theme that relates to Plato's 6 x 9 = 54. The editors explain in a footnote (p. 407) that the sources of Pujades differ, and that he confuses dates because he doesn't clarify that the beginning of a year was either March 25, the "conception" of Christ, or his "incarnation" on December 25, which he used in the diaries. However, the editors may have overlooked that it was penned by a scribe who could have easily corrected the confusion: Fornés was not only an erudite historian and fluent in Spanish, but also the Bishop of Urgell at the time!

      In the handwriting of Fornés, Pujades goes on to quote from Ermesenda's testament and praise her Catholicism rhetorically by showing how generously she distributed her wealth among over fifty monasteries, churches, and churchmen, and even had a few vessels sent to the Roman pontiff. Pujades plays over several pages with the etymology of siphos, sciphos and ciphos to present a history of sacramental vessels. He goes from cups to bowls and pitchers, and that a cipho in the shape of a boat was used by Hercules, and sciphus in book 8 of Virgil's Aeneid. He points out that the early Church used wooden cups for the celebration of the Eucharist, which was later declared an "abuse" by the popes and banned in the Middle Ages. The last mention of these vessels is a rhetorical set-up in three steps: Firstly, he leaves a line in blank, which the editors complete with "...suos eschacos cristalinos ad tabulam..." in a footnote. Secondly, the word "serpell" is used in a sentence and a marginal note points out it is a Catalan word that needs to be replaced with the Castilian version. Thirdly, a quote in Castilian follows "...duas copas de argento..." (p. 414), which is a major clue because we know from Du Cange and Coromines that the original text from Urgell is "gradales duas de argento" in Latin. This word play, which the editors understood, shows that Pujades is a poet and admirer of Chrétien de Troyes and therefore teases his readers by never using the Catalan word for grail as they would have expected, and thus demonstrates that omission is the purest form of a Catalan understatement! Critics who reject these references to the grail myth, which had started at Sant Pere de Rodes, should contemplate the following metaphor of Pujades, which is another major clue because it connects King Charles the Bald to the murder of Sunifred of Urgell:

"Kings inform themselves rarely of the truth by drinking the clear

waters at the source, but usually after they pass through

conduits that are not always clean but darkened,

polluted and corrupted, or served in vessels

that are neither jars from Portugal, nor

porcelain from India, nor a horn

of the Unicorn..."



12. The grail     

          Another example of his "genius, subtleness and erudition" is how Pujades takes his readers from sacramental vessels to the diocese of Urgell in the Pyrenees to which Maria de Meyá used to belong, and all in the handwriting of the new Bishop of Urgell. The last will of Ermesenda becomes a bridge over troubled waters to the testaments of her deceased relatives with similar names, to Count Ermengol I of Urgell (d. 1010 CE) and his half-sister Ermengarda (d. 1030 CE). Both were descendants of Sunifred of Urgell and had the same father, Count Borrell of Barcelona, but different mothers. Although Pujades had covered their lives and death a few chapters earlier, he had also established that Sunifred of Urgell was an Iconoclast because "he did not venerate the holy images". The testaments are clearly the target of his chapter on "vessels" because they base the etymology of "graal" for the first time in history on "gradales duas de argento" [36] according to Du Cange, which Pujades translated as "duas copas de argento" in Spanish to give his readers a hidden signal.

          Skeptics might argue that we are imagining his esoteric concept, but it has surprising back-up: In the high Pyrenees above Urgell, numerous Romanesque churches with frescoes of fiery grails [37] had been discovered in the early 1900s, which scholars like Chandler R. Post, Charles L. Kuhn and Otto Demus [38] link to grail romance. They survived because of their isolated mountain location, which indicates that other churches in Catalonia had such depictions of grails, but were either white-washed or painted over centuries ago, and are yet to be discovered. The most dramatic examples are below because they document the transformation of the enclosed reliquary at Sant Pere de Burgal at left to an open "grala" at Sant Climent de Taüll from around 1123 CE. This has great importance for our research because these frescoes were painted over half a century before Chrétien de Troyes created the word graal (grail).

We may owe the etymology of "grail" to Pujades as well, although du Cange is credited for linking grala-gradals-gradalis from the Urgell testaments, which does not describe a chalice in Catalonia, but a simple platter or bowl. Earlier, we had followed a paper trail from Pujades to de Marca, and finally to Baluze who impressed he savants at St-Germain-des-Prés with the documents he had inherited. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia "Baluze, together with Luc d'Achéry, Mabillon, Sainte-Marthe, Ducange, Montfaucon, and others, gathered an immense quantity of rich materials which the historians of the nineteenth century... used with the greatest skill". How much of these materials came from Pujades remains an open question because Baluze had amassed at the time of his death "1100 printed books, 957 manuscripts, more than 500 charters, and seven cases full of various documents". Some are probably in Colbert's library today and others in the vast "fonds Baluze" at the BnF

         Thanks to Baluze, Sieur du Cange was able to use the research of Pujades "with the greatest skill" because his Glossarium with the etymology of 'graal' was published decades after the Crònica was taken to Paris. This scenario is probably better understood if we consider that it spans generations of scholars: Pujades was born in 1568 and would have been a father figure for de Marca (at right), who was born 26 years later, in 1594. Du Cange was born in 1610 and Baluze (at left) in 1630, although he never met Pujades and bashed him as "ignorant", which implies it was his employer's opinion. He was merely 25 years old when he joined de Marca in 1656 as scribe, and although he had only served him for six years managed to inherit his entire collection of books and documents, including the flosculo of Pujades, which gave him substantial bragging rights in Paris. According to Jesús Villanueva Lopéz, de Marca was told by Mazarin to remove many rare documents from Catalonia and although some may have become part of the Mazarin library, we don't know how many were held back by Baluze and are now registered at the BnF under his name.

         Back to Maria de Meyá and the esoteric time capsule: That Pujades saw the prior on January 6, 1645, and got the promised papers "the same day" contains another important revelation: Wherever they had met, two trips on the same day were required, which indicates that Pujades was living not too far from the priory in a radius of about five hours by mule or horse. This would include Lleida, where he had made his doctorates at age 23. The fact that his son Dalmau studied there as well suggests they had friends in the region. Gaquère writes that Pierre de Marca visited the Cistercian monastery Santa Maria de Poblet near Lleida in July of 1647 [39], which would fit our scenario that he met Pujades, who was either living there or nearby.


13. Those famous last words

              We have reached a point of no return and the elaborate 'time capsule' and bribe could either mean that Pujades was murdered in 1635 or that funds were necessary to save his life and preserve the grail secrets for posterity. In the support of the latter, it would be another esoteric message that Pujades denies his funeral three times and rather repetitiously as we have seen above. We mentioned this earlier in the context of Peter's three denials of Christ and Sant Pere de Galligans, a monastery in Girona. The pun takes us to Sant Pere de Rodes, which holds the secret of St Peter's empty tomb at the Vatican, as Pujades had established at great length. A sophisticated allegory because Pujades knew his tomb was also empty at the time of writing, thus offering a perfect set-up for the final message at the end of the last volume, tome VIII. On the last page, the last chapter of his life's work ends with written proof that Pujades lived near Lleida. Just to make sure the above messages are not dismissed too quickly, he leaves us those "famous last words" to close the Crònica  – and again phrased as if it were from his own mouth:       

"...ultimanente promovido al obispado de la santa iglesia de Lérida.



        We have seen that Pujades meant the prior of Santa Maria de Meyá when he wrote "Vive hoy que contamos 6 de enero de 1645”, yet phrased it as if he were speaking about himself as the editors pointed out. The above last words refer to an abbott of Lleida, an obscure son of Ramon Berenguer IV, and it would be a entertaining conclusion of the Crònica if Pujades exploited the flowery Castilian language for a last time! Promotion is meant, but taken out of context and from his own mouth "promovido" is also an "initiation". By playing with etymology, like Chrétien, Pujades leaves us the message that his "ultimate promotion and initiation" (death) will be in the bishopric of Lérida (Lleida in Catalan), and "only in God's honor and glory". This interpretation could get academic support as soon as the fake funeral is accepted, but until then the "words from the grave" are for most historians just another adventurous conjecture [40].


14. A Final surprise 

           Until new evidence contradicts these conjectures, it seems rather clear that there was only one villain in the Pujades Affair: The overly ambitious Etienne Baluze who betrayed his employer after only six short years of service [41]. This is another Baroque intrigue that deserves to be addressed because Baluze inherited the library of de Marca, including the documents of Pujades, and then waited 26 years to publish the Marca Hispanica. Based on our conclusion that de Marca and Pujades were friends, Baluze may have inherited their documents on the condition he would publish their works, the Catalonia illustrata (Marca Hispanica) in French and Latin, and the Corònica Universal in Spanish, as edited and revised by Fornés. But as soon as his employer was under the ground, Baluze joined the illustrious savants at St-Germain-des-Prés to promote himself with the unique documents in his possession. He gave the work of de Marca the pretentious title Marca Hispanica; sive limes hispanicvs, hoc est, geographica & historica descriptio Cataloniae, Ruscinonis, & circumjacentium populorum and tripled its size with documents like the Gesta comitum barcinonensium. In the process, he created the impression that he discovered rare documents by removing most references to Pujades and by slandering him as "ignorant' in the context of the few he chose to keep - thus damaging the reputation of Pujades and de Marca!

        Our conjecture is supported by the fact that the printer is François Muguet, the "Imprimeur ordinaire du Roi" and "Baluze's lifelong friend" [42], which indicates  Baluze had made up a good story to cover up his plagiarisms! The first draft impressed Colbert, the powerful minister of finance under Louis XIV, and got him the job as his librarian in 1667. That this was a well-calculated plan is demonstrated by the way he had Colbert's name printed even larger than his own and dedicated the work to him.       

       We would have never known about his plagiarism had not the archbishop of Rouen invited the Catalan scholar Dalmases to review the Crònica in 1696. It is a curious omission that Miralles quotes merely from another source that the "archbishop of Rouen" had found the manuscripts forming "dead weight" in his library because a bit of googling leads to another turn of events:

It was Jacques-Nicolas Colbert  – Baluze's employer!

        He became archbishop in 1691 and bought the Colbert Library in 1692 for a nominal price after the death of his famous father and older brother. Because he was a doctor of the Sorbonne and member of the Académie française, his interest in Pujades suggests he may have been fully aware of Baluze's plagiarism and slanderous remark, and ordered Baluze to send him the work. Apparently, Dalmases accepted the invitation and visited the archbishop in France around 1700. According to the social customs, the Catalan aristocrat would have been Colbert's house guest at the Chateau de Gaillon, which is near the river Seine on the road from Paris to Rouen. The four manuscripts are rather large and heavy, and it would have taken Dalmases many days to study them and write a synopsis – even longer in good company. Both were scholars with a love for history, and they may have met daily to discuss the findings of Pujades, which continued at the dinner table and would have ended at the fireplace over a Cognac or Calvados. Hence, they had plenty of inspiration to consider the esoteric time capsule, the potential effects of the Reformation, and even the involvement of secret orders like the Rosicrucians and Alumbrados who had symphatizers among churchmen, most notably some Jesuits and Franciscans. All kinds of subjects could have come up, especially Catalonia and grail romance! They would have also considered how much of Pujades's research had been rerouted by Baluze and 'corrected' by the Mauriststs and Bollandists, and which could explain why Dalmases founded the "Academy of the Distrustful" (Acadèmia dels Desconfiats) upon his return to Barcelona.

           It is probably not another coincidence that right after the visit of Dalmases, the archbishop decided to remove Baluze from the Colbert Library! Nevertheless, academics continue to turn a blind eye to his deplorable character even the French historian Léopold Delisle of the Bibliothèque nationale had no idea in the 1860s why he was "suddenly dismissed" in 1700 [43]. Yet he continued to work for Cardinal Bouillon on his genealogy and in 1708 "appeared the Histoire généalogique de la maison d’Auvergne... where Baluze made use of documents already proved to have been forged" (see link). As a result, the cardinal had to flee to the Netherlands and Baluze was fired from all other offices and banished from Paris. His lack of morals and ethics that facilitated an illustrious career had finally brought his downfall! But as long as universities keep awarding "Baluze Prizes", only a prominent scholar would be able to remove him from this lofty pedestal. A good starting point would be the question why he chose his printer's daughter as "universal heir"? [44] Doesn't it imply Muguet was the man who knew too much and could have ended Baluze's career any time he wanted?   


15. Epilogue

        Aside from some of our bolder claims, we hope to have made a convincing case with circumstantial evidence that Pujades and de Marca worked together with the support of Fornés. This would mean that the funeral was arranged on January 7, 1635 with an empty coffin to save the life of Pujades. It was probably right, therefore, to consider Occam's Razor and favor a "minor" Franciscan plot to save a life over the elaborate Baroque alternative that casts Pierre de Marca as a villain, and perhaps even murderer, who allegedly corrupted a poor Franciscan friar and made him invent a complex 'time capsule' to cover it up. 

        Although our conjectures are based more on imagination than knowledge, and therefore easily rejected, the concept of a fake funeral and the esoteric time-capsule remain a direct challenge of academic practices until contradicting information is available. In the process, we exposed a good dozen of factual errors by the experts, which raises the question if our type of approach couldn't be more productive when so much of the evidence is no longer extant? 

         Finally, it must be noted that "The Pujades Affair" began around 1974 in Figueres (Catalonia) where Alexandre Deulofeu introduced this writer to Pujades and the legends of Sant Pere de Rodes. In more recent years, highlights of our study were the findings of Luis R. Corteguera [25] and Eulàlia Miralles [45] at the BnF, and of Miquel Pujol i Canelles [46] at the archives of Girona, who probably understood the mental world of Pujades better than anyone else today. We must also credit Joan Roig i Jalpi's exposé of Baluze's plagiarism and Jaime Villanueva's discovery of the lost copies of the Crònica. In addition to Pierre de Marca and Francesc Fornés, other unsung heroes of "The Pujades Affair" are Pau Ignasi de Dalmases i Ros and Jacques-Nicolas Colbert. The most important contributors were the editors Fèlix Torres Amat, Pròsper de Bofarull and Albert Pujol, who supported the esoteric side of Pujades and made his work accessible for modern readers. It is not another coincidence that this writer, who learned English as a fourth language, is so passionately pro-Pujades! That's largely because he has similar issues with foreign languages – and because he spent the most rewarding years of his life in a little village at the river Muga with a clear view of the Pyrenees and Mont Verdera, where the grail legends originated.

   BACK                            GRAILGATE                         NEXT




          1. Petro de Marca, Marca Hispanica sive limes Hispanicvs, hoc est, geographica & historica descriptio Cataloniae, Ruscinonis, & circumjacentium populorum, Franciscum Muguet, Paris, 1688.

          2. Jesús Villanueva Lopez, La Marca Hispanica de Pierre de Marca y Étienne Baluze a través de sus tres momentos de composición... (Barcelona, 2004), pp. 205-232.  Available on-line.

          3. Gerónimo Pujades, Crònica Universal del Principado de Cataluña, tome V, (Barcelona, 1829), p.VI.

          4. J.H. Elliott, The Revolt of the Catalans, (Cambridge, 1984), paperback, pp. 253-54

          5. Estevan de Corbera, Cataluña Illustrada, (Napoli, 1678), p.6. The quote simplifies and paraphrases the Baroque praise, which is much more flowery: "Uno dellos es el Dotor Hieronymo Pujades q’a sido el primero que rompiò este hilo, y abrio camino entre tantas difficultades dandonos una Crònica  general de Cataluña, y aunque poco conocido de los Estrãngeros por haverla escrito en lengua Catalana, y mal reçebida dela emulacion de sus cónaturales, estra texida, y continuada con gran cuydado, y prudencia, y con advertencias, y curiosidades muy dignas de estimacion, ha trabajado mucho, y siempre a su costa reboluiendo Archivos, averiguado antiguedades, y empleando lo mejor de su vida en diligencias, y peregrinaciones encaminadas a este fin tan loable, sin que aya tenido jamas arrimo o favor publico, o particular que le alentara, y socorriere en tan honrosa ocupacion ; antes algunos que no saben lo que valen aquellos trabajos quieren a carga cerrada codenarlos ; tristes effetos de una emulacion enbidiosa. Condenan lo que no alcançan que ay grandes leguas dela presuncion ala Obra."

          6. Fr. Joan Gaspar Roig i Jalpi, Resumen Historial de las Grandezas, y Antiquedades de la Cuidad de Gerona..., (Barcelona, 1678), quoted from his foreword, thanks to Google:  Here's a scan of the page!

          7. Jaime Villanueva, Viage literarario a las Iglesias de España, vol. 6, Carta L, (Valencia, 1821), pp. 233-34. Volumes 1-6 were originally published in Madrid between 1803 and 1806. His account in Carta L triggered our dispute of Pujades' death in 1635 before we discovered Fr. Joan (see above, n. 6). Here's the quote.

          8. Jesús Villanueva (see above, n. 2), pp. 221-22. Italia Illustrada (1448-1458) by Flavio Blondo was the first work to “recompile all illustrious events of the country for the admiration of the locals and foreigners”. This was followed by Germania illustrata (ca. 1500), Illustrations de Gaule (1511-1513), Illustrations dels comtats…(1586), Hispania illustrata (1603-1608), and Cataluña Illustrada, written until 1630 by Esteve de Corbera. Pierre de Marca intended originally to publish his work as Catalonia illustrata, in French and Latin, and dedicate it to Mazarin. We should add that 'illustration' has lost some of its meaning which used to be more like illumination, including clearing up and embellishing.

          9.  Marc Mayer, Xavier Espluga, Alejandra Guzmàn, L’epigrafia a la Corònica de Jeroni Pujades (1569-1636), (Barcelona, 2004), pp.224-25. Pujades writes: “Que nadie puede ser buen censor, ni juez, que no oiga ambas partes. Quado se ofrecerán encontradas opiniones, las referiré; y, si es posible, como lo será las más veses, las consiliaré y reduciré a concordia; y quado no pueda llegar á tanto, puiestos los fundamentos y razones de ambas partes, quedará la decision de la duda a la discresión del lector."

         10.  Pujades, (see above, n. 3), (1830), tome VI, pp.384-388. Pujades dedicates an entire chapter to correct the "mal informado" abad Antonio Yepez. The ecclesiastic died in 1618 as abbot of the monastery San Benito de Valladolid, where his chronicle was published. He is known today as Fr. Antonio de Yepes, and his Coronica general de la Orden de San Benito is available at

         11. Ibid, p. 279. Pujades corrects here the Dominican historian Francisco Diago: Because Baldwin I “Ironarm” abducted Judith in 862 CE and Guifré is documented in 870 CE in Catalonia, the eight-year interval was too short for Judith to have gotten pregnant with a daughter that was old enough to get pregnant herself. Hence, the Gesta comitum Barcinonensium (BnF) states falsely that Guifré got the daughter of the Counts of Flanders pregnant and married her later. See also Miquel Coll i Alentorn, Historiografia, (Barcelona, 1991), p. 54. He writes that Guifré's vita in the Gesta pretends to be a legend, whereas it is in fact rather “erudite, and probably dreamt up for pragmatic reasons.” Stefano Maria Cingolani, Gestes dels comtes de Barcelona I reis d’Aragó, (Valencia, 2008), p. 44, adds that "the forger seems to have been very familiar with history.”

         12. Miquel Pujol i Canelles, Aportació a la biografia de Jeroni Pujades, Una biblioteca particular de començament del segle XVII, 1985, writes "enemics mortals", p.158. We contacted Father Pujol in October, 2010, exactly a year before he died. He was a man of great warmth and a deep rich voice, and his findings and wide field of interests demonstrate that he understood Pujades better than most modern scholars. He was honored at the "Jornada d’estudi en homenatge a Miquel Pujol Canelles celebrades el passat 19 d’octubre, 2011," and in 2014 at "El Cicle de Conferències du el nom del filòleg, medievalista i investigador castelloní Miquel Pujol Canelles (1927-2011). He was known as a specialist about troubadours and the history of the Jews in the region, because of such works as La poesia occitanocatalana de Castelló d’Empúries, Recull de poemes de final del segle XIII i primer terç del XIV, and La conversió dels jueus de Castelló d’Empúries.

         13. Harald Zimmermann, Das Mittelalter, 1. Teil, (Braunschweig, 1975), p. 9: "Den Bollandisten und den Maurinern blieb die Führung in der Mittelalterforschung gewahrt, was um so leichter möglich war, als hier wie dort die Arbeit von der ganzen Gemeinschaft getragen wurde."

         14.  Pujades, (see above, n. 3), vol. IV, pp.186-190. See also vol. VIII (1832), p. 123, where he refers to "el grande libro del numero 223 llamado Registro" que es del órden del P. San Benito". He references folio 17, dated July 1, 1097, which indicates that the first 16 pages of the chronicle may cover about three centuries. A comparison with the first edition of the Coronica vniversal... (Barcelona, 1609), f. 316v. shows that both versions mention an "ampolla" with the blood of Christ. But the translation of Esp.118 in Paris reveals that Pujades expanded the reference to "un vaso, o ampolla" which was never published. In Castilian Spanish "vaso" is a better translation of the Catalan "grala" because it includes vessles for drinking and all kinds of common containers, even toilet bowls. According to the chronicle, the Romans feared an attack by the Persians in the early seventh century and had clergymen take a ship full of important relics towards the west. After a favorable wind from the South, they were forced to take refuge from a storm at the Pyrenees and decided to hide their cargo in a cave, including the holy vessel and remains of St Peter. When they returned, they were unable to find the cave and continued the search for the rest of their lives. These are the basic ingredients of grail lore, with a bit of Monty Python, because there would ineluctably have been witnesses if Italians were climbing up and down these mountains until they died of old age. Had the locals asked them what they are looking for, they would have said a "gradalis", a vessel of no value, and some "reliquiae insignes". If pressed for details, they might have admitted a search for some bones, the bones of a fisherman, even of an important fisherman. As time went by, the tale grew in the imagination of passing minstrels to the "quest" for a holy grala which is "guarded" by a rich fisherman or fisherking. The higher theme of grail romance was added when a later generation realized that spiritual values are more important than material things and finally abandoned the search.


Note: Just as in the Gesta (see above, n. 10), this chronicler seems to have forged history for pragmatic reasons. His claim that the cave was finally rediscovered, and a monastery built over its entry, is disputed by Pujades who writes that the discovery would have been celebrated in all of Christendom and he concludes that these events occurred at different times. He is proven right again, because recent excavations at the site identify foundations from "before the sixth century" which proves that the cave was never found. (See detailed tale).


         15. Pujades, (see above, n. 3), tom. V, p. IV.


         16. Ibid, tom. V, p. VII. According to Viage literarario..., vol. 6, letter 50, pp. 233-5, the copies were inherited by Bishop Taberner's brother, the count of Darnius. When the Marqués de Villel married the Condesa de Darnius in 1784, the manuscripts became part of his library. It is rather curious that the illustrious "Marqués de Villel, Conde de Darnius, grande de España y gentilhombre de Cámara de Su Majestad con ejercicio" led a double-life as a pro-French member of "La Nobleza Catalana Bonapartista 1808 - 1815", which would explain why he alerted Villanueva of the copies in his possession. There is also an entertaining quote from Marx and Engels (La España Revolucionaria): "En Cádiz, que era lo más revolucionario de España en aquella época, la presencia de un delegado de la Junta Central, el estúpido y engreído marqués de Villel, provocó una insurrección el 22 y 23 de febrero de 1809 que, de no haber sido desviada a tiempo hacia el cauce de la guerra por la independencia, hubiera tenido las más desastrosas consecuencias." For the German version google "Karl Marx Friedrich Engels" (MEGA).


         17. Jesús Villanueva, (see above, n. 2), p. 213


         18. Diccionari Biografic, vol.III, (Barcelona, 1966), p.594. The Enciclopedia Italiana, XXVIII, Roma, MCMXXV-XIV, proposes that Pujades died "...verso la metà del secolo seguente", and the Biographie Universelle, Michaud, tome 34, Paris, writes he died "...vers 1650”.


         19. Pujades, (see above, n. 3), tome V, p.VI. "No puede dudarse, dice la censura de la Real Acadèmia de la historia, que el autor á costa de mucha aplicacion y trabajo, recopiló en su Crònica  cuanto estaba esparcido en los antiguos autores, que reconoció muchos archivos, y se aprovechó de sus códices y documentos: y aun de puede asegurar, sin ecsageracion, que ilustra la historia de Cataluña con muchas noticias mas que cuantos le precedieron… Nos parece que se puede mirar y publicar como un códice antiguo lleno de noticias curiosas é importantes, y como una mina que pueden beneficiar los Editores con grandes ventajas de la historia…"


         20. Ibid., (1832), tome VIII, pp. I -  IX. This is the final "Advertencia", which claims that Pujades and family were ardent pro-Castilians. The only reference is on p. V, stating the following: "...como muriese en el año de 1635 dejando al dicho Dr. José Pujades su hijo, solo en edad de 11 años, y los franceses entrasen á occupar Cataluña en el año de 1640 hasta 1652, el obispo Pedro Marca, del partido de Francia, cargó con los originales, y se los llevó en Francia, sin que se puede gozar la luz de tanto trabajo." Mirralles doesn't mention the handover and 1651 either, and unless Mayer had access to the actual letter, where this is mentioned, he is definitely mistaken. However, it would make more sense if Pujades survived his "funeral" with the help of de Marca, see rough draft of additional conjectures.


         21.  John H. Elliott, La revolta Catalana 1598-1640: Un estudi sobre la decadència d'Espanya, (Valencia, 2011), p. 580.


       22. That the Crònica was in Franciscan hands is supported by Joan Roig i Jalpí who referred to the Second part in 1678, before the "Marca hispanica..." was published by Baluze. It should also be noted that the Barcelona editions are organized differently than Pujades intended. In the four volumes in Paris, tomes I-IV (Esp. 117-120), Pujades begins the Second Part in tome II, and the Third Part in tome III, both of which are headlined with "Jhs Maria Francisco". The comparison reveals that they were added by different scribes, as shown at left by our little sketch (tome II) and a copy of the original (tome III) at right. It seems that Fornés had stored the manuscripts at the Franciscan monastery in Barcelona where he edited the work and only took a few chapters at a time to Pujades for his review.


         23. Pujades, (see above, n. 3), tome VII, p. II. The translation: “Hoy á los siete de enero de mil seiscientos treinta y cinco fué enterrado el cuerpo del Señor Gerónimo Pujades, Doctor en Derechos de la presente villa; en su enfermedad ha recibido todos los sacramentos de la Sta. Madre Iglesia : se le ha hecho sepultura mayor en la iglesia mayor, y despues le llevaron á san Francisco, y allí está su cuerpo enterrado. Dieron á cada Capellan dos sueldos por la sepultura, y al Rector semanero cuatro sueldos. Cujus anima requiescat in pace, Amen. Por mí Jayme Correja Pbo. y otro de los Rectores de Castelló y de San Juan Sescloses.”


         24. Pujol, (see above, n. 12), p.146.  In addition to the last will of Pujades, Pujol provides also the probated list of his posssession, including every book and document in his library, yet the Crònica  is not mentioned, which is strong evidence that it was already in the hands of de Marca.


         25.  Luis R. Corteguera, The Peasant Who Went to Hell: Dreams and Visions in Early Modern Spain, eds. Anne Plane and Leslie Tuttle, Dreams, Dreamers and Visions: The Early Modern Atlantic World (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013), pp. 101-2. Cortgeguera found the book at the BnF in the Baluze collection, no. 238, fol. 38or, and discusses in detail the marginal notes by Pujades.


         26. Roig i Jalpi, (See above, no. 6) p. 245. Available on-line, which may not confirm the translation we quoted from another source. He also accused Baluze of exploiting the researches of Pujades and de Marca in other works, like tome 10 on Councils, published in 1671, col. 614.


         27. Fèlix Torres Amat, MEMORIAS para ayudar..., (Barcelona, 1836), p.509. Here is the complete quote: "No he podido averguar de fijo el dia ni año que murió, pero en su Crònica  libro XIV cap. 62, dice que aquello lo escríbia en 1645, y segun esto tenia entonces 77 años de edad." (Available on-line at Google)


         28. Jesús Villanueva, (see above, n. 2), p. 214.


         29. James Amelang, Spain, Europe and the Atlantic word, Essays in honour of John H. Elliott, ed. Richard L. Kagan and Geoffrey Parker, The mental world of Jeroni Pujades, (Cambridge UK - 1995), p.216


         30. Pujol, (see above, n. 12), p.101.


         31. Johannes Kepler, Mysterium Cosmographicum, De Stella Nova, Gesammelte Werke, vol. 1, ed. Max Caspar, (Munich, 1938), pp.441-61. He writes: "Mit drei Argumenten wird offen operiert... Ein viertes, das den Menschen Mund und Augen verschliesset, steht dunkel im Hintergrund: die Autorität der heutigen Theologen bei allen Parteien. Diese ist so erdrückend, dass ich nicht umhin kann, dieses Zeitalter als unglücklich zu beklagen.” Also: Johannes Kepler, Über den neuen Stern im Fuss des Schlangenträgers, tr. Otto and Eva Schönberger, Eberhard Knobloch, (Würzburg, 2006), pp.170/71. In an elaborate rhetoric, Kepler debunks all popular, superstitious beliefs to conclude in chapter 27 that only two options remain: Either a supernova ignited in 1604 among the fixed stars because the "natural laws" govern the universe, or it was a "supernatural event" caused by "a firm decision by the almighty God to bring salvation to mankind"! Kepler follows this up with a passionate declaration of his Christian faith to close the chapter with: "Praised be the name of the Father from eternity to eternity, as He has the wisdom and the power". (Der Name des Herrn sei gelobt von Ewigkeit zu Ewigkeit, denn sein sind Weisheit und Stärke"). For a better understanding of the Baroque mentality, we need to consider that Cervantes was born a generation earlier, while Kepler, Pujades, and Shakespeare were contemporaries.


         32. Pujades, (see above, n. 3), vol. VII., pp. 347-49


         33Plutarch’s Moralia, de defectu oraculorum, Pearson/Sandbach, Vol. XI, (Harvard, 1927), pp.381-87


         34Pujol writes (p. 199) under "Obres històriques: …Tal vegada és ara l'ocasió de preguntar-se ¿per qué no consta la Crònica –ni els Flòsculs– en el Memorial de llibres, realitzat ascassament deu dies després de la mort de Jeroni Pujades? Que Pere de Marca se n'endugué els manuscrits de la Crònica , entre altres documents importants, sembla no haver-hi cap dubte. Marca estigué oficialment a Catalunya del 1644 fins al 1651, interval de temps en què es suposa que aconsegui de l'esposa I als fills els cobejats manuscrits. ¿Visità en alguna altra ocasió anteriorment Espanya? El P. Villanueva, per la seva banda, diu clarament que l'arquebisbe Marca els demanà personalment a Pujades en vida d'aquest. Com sigui, la question d'aquesta absència queda pendent." If we consider that Pujol confirmed on p. 160 that Pujades died at age 67 and was buried on January 7, 1635, we have the false 10 of "vive hoy" Pujades had used to invoke revelation, and another false 10 because 20 would take us to the funeral only because the date of death is not known. Because this would be another important discovery, more time is needed to make sure this conjecture is not a "wild goose chase"! Meanwhile, scholars are solicited to please add some critical comments!


         35. Pujades, (see above, no. 3), tome VI, p. 263. This poetic metaphor relates to the father of Guifré el Pilos, who lost the support of Charles the Bald because of false accusations. It is paraphrased from: "…los reyes en el informarse de las cosas y en el saber el justo valor de ellas pocas veces beben agua clara saliendo de sus manantiales; y no tomándolas de sus principios, sino de relaciones pasadas por conductos no siempre límpios, ántes muy amenudo charcosos, corrompidos y gastados, ó presentados en vasos que no son búcaros de Portugal ni porcelanas de la India ó hueso de unicornio; es muy posible lleguen gastadas ó en de peligro serlo, y aun de estragar los estómagos de quien las bebe."  Apparently, Pujades discovered that the Gesta comitum Barcinonensium pertains to grail romance.


         36. C. du Fresne du Cange, Glossarium mediæ..., (Niort, 1885), Tom. IV, p.91. He is followed by Joan Cromines, Diccionari Etimològic Complimentari de la Llegua Catalana, Vol. IV, (Barcelona, 1984), p.637: GREAL “del cat. Greala ‘escudella’ (cat. arcaic gradal, f.)… La dada més antiga que es té del mot en qualsevol país es troba en una escriptura catalana, in més concretament Urgelllesa en latí en l’any 1010 (du C.) 'ad Sancta Fide coenobio gradales duas de argento'... d’Ermengarda, filla del comte Borrell de Barcelona, any 1030, tornem a trobar 'vexela de auro et de argento, id sunt enapos V, et gradals II...


         37Manuel Castiñeiras and Jordi Camps, Romanesque Art in the MNAC collections, with Joan Duran-Porta, tr. Andrew Langdon-Davies and Andrew Stacey, pp. 27-28, 46, (Barcelona, 2008).  See also Joseph Goering, The Virgin and the Grail: origins of a legend, (New Haven, 2005).


         38. Chandler R. Post, A History of Spanish Painting, (Cambridge, Mass., 1930), vol. I, p. 195, Charles L. Kuhn, Romanesque mural painting of Catalonia, (Cambridge, Mass., 1930), p. 20, Otto Demus, Romanische Wandmalerei, (Munich, 1968), p. 160.


         39. François Gaquère, Pierre de Marca, Sa Vie, ses Oevres, son Gallicanisme,  (Paris, 1932), p.71


         40. Critics of our creative conjectures will also dismiss the earlier "last words" Pujades left in his own hand, which are similar to those of Fornés: Tomo VI (Barcelona, p. 484) ends with "...bajo la obediencia, censura y correccion de la Santa madre Yglesia Catholica Romana; en cuya obedencia con el divino favor protesto vivir y morir como fiel y Catholico christiano. Amen." It is curious that the liberal editors, of whom Torres Amat is known to have leaned towards Jansenism, improved his Spanish by changing Yglesia Catholica to a simple "Iglesia" and Catholico Christiano to "católico cristiano", but left the ambiguous "protesto" untouched, which is commonly used in the sense of "protesting" and only rarely as "professing". Based on the other examples, where Pujades exploits his flawed Spanish to speak to his readers from the grave as the editors point out, he may be signaling to his enlightened readers with this ambiguity that he "protested" to live and die as a Roman Catholic because he had secretly become a follower of the Reformation. Calvin and Luther were widely discussed among humanists at the time, even at the monastic orders, although the evidence for the latter is no longer extant. The "declaration of faith" shows that he was no longer the man who submitted himself to the Church as written decades earlier at the end of Tomo IV (Barcelona, p. 337) "sometiéndome y con la presente Obra a la Sta. Madre Iglesia católica romana..." 


         41. Jesús Villanueva (see above, n.2), p. 208: He proposes that Baluze became secretary in 1656, only six years before de Marca's death.


         42. Keith Busby, Les Manuscrits de Chrétien de Troyes, vol.2, (Amsterdam, 1993), pp. 95-96.


             43Léopold Delisle, Les manuscrits de Colbert, num. 1, (Paris 1863) p. 301. Even the noted "administrateur général de la Bibliothèque nationale" didn't know why Baluze was fired: "On ne sait pour quels motifs le savant qui avait crée cette collection, qui l'avait adminstrée avec tant the zèle, en fut tout à coup séparé." Available on-line.


        44. Busby, see above no. 42 


        45. Eulàlia Miralles, LA CORÓNICA UNIVERSAL DEL PRINCIPADO DE CATALUÑA DE JERONI PUJADES, UNA OBRA INTERPOLADA?, Barcelona - 2002.  Available on-line.


     46. Pujol (see above, n. 12) is available on-line. He kindly copied for us two pages of missing notes which can be accesssed at 228 and 229. In the light of the time-capsule, other comments of Pujol need to be studied carefully! He writes that Pujades "was definitely a humanist" because in addition to legal and religious books, his collection of over five hundred books cover the highlights of human wisdom since Antiquity (p.175). It's not surprising that he also had works of John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Geber, Ramon Lull, Giordano Bruno and Nostradamus!





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